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Vascetoan Grammar
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step in for your vasectomy, my people
This public article was written by [Deactivated User], and last updated on 4 Jul 2020, 16:51.

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Menu 1. General 2. Phonology 3. Verbs 4. Negation 5. Nouns 6. Volition 7. Passive Voice 8. Relative Clauses
[edit] [top]General

 Vascetoan is an a posteriori synthetic language based on Malay. It is an active-stative language, specifically of the fluid-S type, meaning that nouns can be marked differently depending on volition.

[edit] [top]Phonology

Vascetoan, much like Irish and its broad/slender consonants, has two differing consonant series, called bhasá and casael. What determines whether a consonant is bhasá or casael are the vowels that surround it, which are also grouped into bhasá/casael classes:

Bhasá vowels

a /a/, á /a:/, ó /o:/

Casael vowels

e /e/, é /e:/, o /o/

For most consonants, if they are surrounded by a bhasá vowel, they are followed by a velar approximant /ɰ/, and by /j/ if surrounded by a casael vowel. For example:

abá /abɰa:/
ebé /ebje:/

Note that they are not what we would call palatalised or velarised; rather, another consonant is inserted after it.

For other consonants, however, they have special bhasá/casael forms which are not simply followed by /ɰ/ or /j/. These are listed below:

BhasáCasael
mp
xʃ
wv
tʃ
kg
lr
hh



In Vascetoan, verbs conjugate to show tense, aspect, and mood. These are indicated by suffixes, which can be stacked together e.g. stacking past tense and imperfective aspect suffixes to indicate imperfect past. The conjugations are shown below (the left conjugations come after bhasá phonemes, and the right ones after casael ones):

Tense:

BhasáCasael
Present--
Past-dó-do
Future-hácaé-heácaé


Aspect:

BhasáCasael
Perfective--
Imperfective-dóc-deóc


Mood:

BhasáCasael
Necessative-caedo-cedo
Dubitative-hásao-heásao
Interrogative-có-co


[edit] [top]Negation

To negate a verb, the negative form of the copula is used ('tádaé' - original form 'bádaé'). For example:

Seáhao mácaé bheóhoceadó.
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
eat-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
apple-PATPatient (role)
recipient or target of event/action

I eat an apple.

becomes:

Seáhao tádaé mácaé bheóhoceadó.
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
NEGNegative (polarity)
not
.COPCopula
used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate
eat-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
apple-PATPatient (role)
recipient or target of event/action

I do not eat an apple.


Vascetoan nouns decline to 8 cases, 4 of which are locative cases.

CaseBhasáCasael
Agentive--
Patientive-cadó-ceadó
Genitive-lóc-loc
Dative-có-co
Ablative-mhádao-mheádao
Adessive-daeceát-deceát
Inessive-dálám-deálám
Locative-cát-ceát


Pronouns
Pronouns follow the same declinations as normal nouns; these are shown below.

1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
seáhao
2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
cáhao
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
teo


[edit] [top]Volition

Vascetoan, being a fluid-S active-stative language, marks nouns differently to mark degrees of volition. In a sentence with a transitive verb, normally, the subject would be in the agentive case, and the direct object in the patientive.

eg. Seáhao tómhaodo áhaeceadó.
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
spill-PTPast tense (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
water-PATPatient (role)
recipient or target of event/action

I spilt the water (on purpose).

But in a non-volitional transitive-verb sentence, the subject is put in the patientive case, and the object in the dative.

eg. Seáhaoceadó tómhaodo áhaeco.
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
-PATPatient (role)
recipient or target of event/action
spill-PTPast tense (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
water-DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location

I accidentally spilt the water.

[edit] [top]Passive Voice

Let us take the example sentence "I eat an apple":

Seáhao mácaé bheóceadó.
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
eat.PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
apple-PATPatient (role)
recipient or target of event/action


To put this sentence into the passive voice, we use the auxiliary verb 'átao' (have), and the agent into the ablative.

Bheóhoceadó átao mácaé seáhaomheádao.
apple-PATPatient (role)
recipient or target of event/action
have.PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
eat 1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
-ABLAblative (case)
away from

The apple is being eaten by me.

In different tenses, aspects, or moods, the auxiliary will take any conjugations.

Bheóhoceadó átaoheácaé mácaé seáhaomheádao.
apple-PATPatient (role)
recipient or target of event/action
have.FTFuture tense (tense)
action occurring after the moment of speech
eat 1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
-ABLAblative (case)
away from

The apple will be eaten by me.

Bheóhoceadó átaocedo mácaé seáhaomheádao.
apple-PATPatient (role)
recipient or target of event/action
have.NECNecessitative mood (mood)
must, have to
eat 1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
-ABLAblative (case)
away from

The apple needs to be eaten by me.

[edit] [top]Relative Clauses

Vascetoan forms relative clauses in a special way; the relative clause is reduced into a single phrase treated as an adjective. However, the order is not ADJ-N as normal - the order is switched to N-ADJ.

Seáhao mácaé bheóhoceadó, bádaé-maho.
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
eat.PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
apple-PATPatient (role)
recipient or target of event/action
| (COPCopula
used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate
-red).ADJAdjectival
syntactic

I eat the apple, which is red.
Literally: I eat apple, is-red.

Teo, mhácádó-tomhé, máhédodeóc sedéceát.
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
| (wear.PTPast tense (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-hat).ADJAdjectival
syntactic
| come-PTPast tense (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-IMPFUnknown code here-LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc

He who wore a hat was coming here.
Literally: He, wore-hat, was coming to here.
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