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This public article was written by severy, and last updated on 4 Dec 2017, 20:36.
[top]Phoneme inventory & orthography
|Stop||t [tʰ d]||t͡ɬ||t͡s||kʷ [kʰʷ gʷ]||k [kʰ g]||[q]||ʔ|
|Fricative||θ [ð]||s [z]||ɬ [ɮ]||[ʃ] ʒ||[xʷ] ɣʷ||x [ɣ]||χ [ʁ]||h|
|High||ɪ ɪ́||o ó|
|Mid||ɛ̃ ẽ́ ɛ̰̃̀||ə̥ [ɨ̥]||[ɔ̃ ɔ̰̃̀]|
|Low||a á||ɑ̃ ɑ̃́ ɑ̰̃̀|
The voiceless schwa may be voiced in some positions and/or by some speakers.
Orthography, where different from IPA:
- /kʷ/ - qu, q
- /ɣʷ/ - gu, g
- /ʔ/ - ɂ
- /t' s' t͡ɬ' k' kʷ'/ - ṫ ṡ ḷ ḳ q̇u
- /θ/ - ŧ
- /ɬ/ - ş
- /t͡ɬ/ - ţ
- /t͡s/ - ç
- /ʒ/ - z
- /x/ - j
- /χ/ - x
- /j/ - y
- /ɪ ɪ́/ - i í
- /ɛ̃ ẽ́ ɛ̰̃̀/ - e é è
- /ə̥/ - '
- /o ó/ - u ú
- /ɑ̃ ɑ̃́ ɑ̰̃̀/ - o ó à
[top]Nasal insertion and assimilation
- A nasal stop is inserted between a nasal vowel /ɛ̃ ẽ́ ɑ̃ ɑ̃́/ and a plosive. oku [ɑ̃nku], iteta [ɪtɛ̃nta].
- There is only one phonemic nasal stop in Kisaangan, /n/, however it may appear as [m ɲ ŋ ɴ] depending on context. Before labiovelars, it becomes [m] ; before palatals and postalveolars, it is [ɲ] ; and before plain velars it is [ŋ]. anwa [amwa], inju [ɪŋxo], unji [uɲji].
- This is also true of the nasal inserted after nasal vowels. kisáoka [kɪsáɑ̃ŋka], nzír [ɲʒɪ́ɾ]. Remember that labiovelars /kʷ ɣʷ/ trigger [m], not [ŋ].
- In nasal-glide clusters, the glide deletes after nasal assimilation. owa /ɑ̃wa/ → [ɑ̃mwa] → [ɑ̃ma].
- The stops /t k kʷ/ become aspirated /tʰ kʰ kʰʷ/ word-initially or after another obstruent and before a high-tone vowel. tásu [tʰáso], astí [astʰɪ́].
- Between two vowels (except /ə̥/), stops become voiced. aki [agɪ], uto [udɑ̃].
- All non-affricate obstruents /t k kʷ θ s ɬ x χ/ voice [d g gʷ ð z ɮ ɣ ʁ] after a word-initial nasal, or after a stop and a nasal. nkuts' [ŋgot͡sə̥], nquil [mgʷɪl], atnsúta [atnzóda].
- The two naturally-voiced fricatives, /ʒ ɣʷ/, devoice [ʃ xʷ] after plosives. kzúnwa [kʃóma], átgui [átxʷɪ]. The /txʷ/ cluster may be realized as [tχʷ].
- /w/ becomes voiceless [ʍ] before the voiceless vowel ' /ə̥/ or in contact with /h/.
- /ə̥/ may be voiced [ə] by some speakers, especially near the segments /ʒ ɣʷ/ or in a cluster with another vowel. In other instances it may be realized as a syllabic [h], long fricative, or as exaggerated aspiration.
- /ɪ:/ and /o:/ become /ɪj/ and /ow/ respectively before another vowel.
- /o/ is [u] finally and before /wC/
- /ə̥/ becomes /ɨ̥/ before voiceless fricatives.
- /ɑ ɑ̰̃̀/ becomes [ɔ̰̃ ɔ̰̃̀] after /a á/
- /j/ is often realized as [ɥ] when touching labiovelars.
- /s/ may become /ʃ/ word-finally after /ɪ/.
- Velars /k x/, labiovelars /kʷ ɣʷ/ and /n/ assimilate [q χ qʷ ʁʷ ɴ] to adjacent uvular /χ/
Kisaangan has a