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verbs in Thuldian
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short summary of the verbal system of thuldian
This public article was written by [Deactivated User], and last updated on 7 Sep 2023, 10:58.

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Menu 1. introduction to verbs 2. conjugations 3. participles 4. compound tenses 5. the subjunctive 6. the imperative 7. the copula 8. reflexive verbs 9. verbal aspects
[edit] [top]introduction to verbs

Tuldian verbs are complicated, preserving much of the complicated nature of Proto-Germanic. They inflect for person, tense, number and mood. They are divided into 4 distinct regular conjugations, and 2 irregular ones.
The number of tenses that a verb conjugates to has increased from Proto-Germanic, with two additional tenses being developed, probably by influence from the surrounding Baltic languages, the past iterative and future tenses. Thus all in all, a verb can be either in the past, present, past iterative or future tense. The past iterative represents actions that occurred either habitually or repeatedly in the past, the equivalent of the imperfect tense in romance language, and thus is technically an aspect but is classed as a tense in most Halkujacia grammars.
There are also three moods: the indicative, subjunctive and imperative moods. The imperative only exists in the present tense, but the other moods are used in all tenses. The subjunctive is used to express wishes, desires, situations not known to be real by the speaker, in reported speech and also as a conditional mood.
Note: in all verbs, -в- is deleted before another consonant and leads to compensatory lengthening of the preceding vowel.

[edit] [top]conjugations

Conjugation 1
The first conjugation is notable for the absence of a thematic vowel in the infinitive, present or past. Despite its complexity, it is a highly regular verbal class, with very few instances of irregularity. Their stems undergo ablaut in order to form the past and participles, the full list of vowel shifts is listed below:
infinitive2/3 personpast 1past 2participle
-ай- -ѣй--í--і-
-у́- -ѵ́--ѡ--у-
-і- -і--а--у-
-ѵ- -ѵ--а́--о-
-е- -і--а--е́--у-
-а- -ѣ--а́--а-

An example of a conjugation 1 verb is немт – to take
indicative
presentpastfuture
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
ік немунамунемшу
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
ѳу німснамснемсі
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
ис німтнамтнемс
1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
ме́с немамне́мумнемсім
2PSecond person plural (person)
addressee (plural)
ю́с немаѳне́муѳнемсіѳ
3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
и́с неманне́муннемсін
subjunctive
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
ік немѡне́мѡнемші
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
ѳу немісне́міс
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
ис неміне́мінемш
1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
ме́с немімне́мімнемшім
2PSecond person plural (person)
addressee (plural)
ю́с неміѳне́міѳнемшіѳ
3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
и́с немінне́міннемшін
participles
active немансенуменснемсінс
passive немамсенуманснемсімс
adverbial немантнумуснемсѣнт


Conjugation 2
Unlike the highly regular Conjugation 1 which is almost always highly predictable in its ablaut patterns, conjugation 2 is far more irregular and unpredictable. However, it is still classed as a regular class of verbs, and it still has a predictable declension.
infinitive2/3 personpast 1past 2
-í- -í--í--ѣ-
-ѡ- -ы́--ѡ--е-
-ы- -і--ы--ѵ-
-о- -ѣ--ѣ--е-
-е́- -í--а́--е-
-а́- -ѣ́--а́--а́-

An example of a conjugation 2 verb is те́кт – to touch
indicative
presentpastfuture
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
ік те́кутѣ́скуте́кшу
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
ѳу тíкстѣ́сксте́ксі
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
ис тíкттѣ́сктте́кс
1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
ме́с те́камтескумте́ксім
2PSecond person plural (person)
addressee (plural)
ю́с те́каѳтескуѳте́ксіѳ
3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
и́с те́кантескунте́ксін
subjunctive
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
ік те́кѡтескѡте́кші
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
ѳу те́цістесціс
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
ис те́цітесціте́кш
1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
ме́с те́цімтесцімте́кшім
2PSecond person plural (person)
addressee (plural)
ю́с те́ціѳтесціѳте́кшіѳ
3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
и́с те́цінтесцінте́кшін
participles
active те́кансте́кенсте́ксінс
passive те́камсте́кансте́ксімс
adverbial те́кантте́кусте́ксѣнт


Given that this class comes from the class 7 strong verbs of proto-germanic which formed their past stems through reduplication, the first consonant of the verb is reduplicated to after the stem vowel, although there are some alternations. For example, the verb above те́кт would be expected to have a past tense form тѣ́тку, but the т changes to a с before another consonant, giving тѣ́ску. The full list of alternations is as follows:
б - в
д - з
ж - г
с - р
т - с
ц - р
ѯ - р
ѱ - р
Furthermore, in consonant clusters involving л or р, the initial consonant isn't reduplicated, just the л or р. So бла́ст does not become блѣвту but блѣлту. Also, пк and пт change to ѯ, so пы́кт does not become пѵ́пку but пѵ́ѯу.

Conjugation 3
This conjugation is the most common, and can end in -а́т, -íт or -е́т. It’s characterised by deletion of the thematic vowel in the present tense. There is no ablaut in the stem in any tense, and the past tense is formed through suffixation rather than ablaut. An example of a conjugation 4 verb is луѯа́т – to tempt:
indicative
presentpastfuture
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
ік луѯулуѯа́дулуѯа́шу
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
ѳу луѯаслуѯа́дслуѯа́сі
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
ис луѯалуѯа́длуѯа́с
1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
ме́с луѯамлуѯа́дамлуѯа́сім
2PSecond person plural (person)
addressee (plural)
ю́с луѯаѳлуѯа́даѳлуѯа́сіѳ
3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
и́с луѯанлуѯа́данлуѯа́сін
subjunctive
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
ік луѯѡлуѯа́дѡлуѯа́ші
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
ѳу луѯіслуѯа́діс
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
ис луѯілуѯа́ділуѯа́ш
1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
ме́с луѯімлуѯа́дімлуѯа́шім
2PSecond person plural (person)
addressee (plural)
ю́с луѯіѳлуѯа́діѳлуѯа́шіѳ
3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
и́с луѯінлуѯа́дінлуѯа́шін
participles
active луѯа́нселуѯа́нслуѯа́сінс
passive луѯа́мселуѯа́дслуѯа́сімс
adverbial луѯа́нтлуѯа́юслуѯа́сѣнт

If a verb ending in -íт or -е́т has a stem ending in ц, ѕ, кь, гь, л, н, р, ш, ж, the declension is slightly different. The thematic vowel is deleted in the past tense, and the д assimilates to a т after voiceless consonants or л and р. An example of a conjugation 4 verb is двалíт – to live:
indicative
presentpastfuture
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
ік двалюдвалтудвалíшу
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
ѳу дваласдвалтсдвалíсі
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
ис дваладвалтдвалíс
1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
ме́с двалѧмдвалтамдвалíсім
2PSecond person plural (person)
addressee (plural)
ю́с двалѧѳдвалтаѳдвалíсіѳ
3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
и́с двалѧндвалтандвалíсін
subjunctive
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
ік двалѫдвалтѡдвалíші
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
ѳу двалисдвалтіс
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
ис двалидвалтідвалíш
1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
ме́с двалимдвалтімдвалíшім
2PSecond person plural (person)
addressee (plural)
ю́с двалиѳдвалтіѳдвалíшіѳ
3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
и́с двалиндвалтіндвалíшін
participles
active двалинседвалинсдвалíсінс
passive двалѧмседвалтсдвалíсімс
adverbial двалѧнтдвалюсдвалíсѣнт

Conjugation 4
This conjugation is characterised by total retention of the thematic vowel. It can end in -а́т, -е́т, -íт or -о́т in the infinitive. An example of a conjugation 5 verb is вѣно́т – to unite:
indicative
presentpastfuture
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
ік вѣно́ювѣно́дувѣно́шу
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
ѳу вѣно́свѣно́дсвѣно́сі
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
ис вѣно́вѣно́двѣно́с
1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
ме́с вѣно́мвѣно́дамвѣно́сім
2PSecond person plural (person)
addressee (plural)
ю́с вѣно́ѳвѣно́даѳвѣно́сіѳ
3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
и́с вѣно́нвѣно́данвѣно́сін
subjunctive
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
ік вѣно́ѫвѣно́дѡвѣно́ші
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
ѳу вѣно́йсвѣно́діс
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
ис вѣно́йвѣно́дівѣно́ш
1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
ме́с вѣно́ймвѣно́дімвѣно́шім
2PSecond person plural (person)
addressee (plural)
ю́с вѣно́йѳвѣно́діѳвѣно́шіѳ
3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
и́с вѣно́йнвѣно́дінвѣно́шін
participles
active вѣно́нсевѣно́нсвѣно́сінс
passive вѣно́мсевѣно́дсвѣно́сімс
adverbial вѣно́нтвѣно́юсвѣно́сѣнт

Conjugation 5
The first irregular conjugation, conjugation 5 verbs can also be called preterite present verbs, as they descend from old Germanic strong verbs whose past forms became their present forms. There are only 11 of them, of which 7 are auxiliary verbs. Their irregular stems are as follows:
infinitivemeaningpresent 1present 2past
акт to fearа́г-а́г-акту
віст to knowвíт-віт-вікту
вѣкт to oweвѣш-вѣг-вѣшту
дозт to dareдар-доз-дозду
дукт to be goodдог-дуг-дукту
лірт to be able toлíс-лір-лісту
макт to be allowed/letмаг-маг-машту
ма́ст to have toма́т-ма́т-ма́сту
мунт to thinkман-мун-мунту
ѯот to have toѯал-ѯул-ѯоду
ѳопт to needѳа́п-ѳоб-ѳопту

An example of a conjugation 5 verb is лірт – to be able to
indicative
presentpastfuture
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
ік лíсулістуліршу
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
ѳу лíсслістслірсі
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
ис лíстлісттлірс
1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
ме́с лірумлістамлірсім
2PSecond person plural (person)
addressee (plural)
ю́с ліруѳлістаѳлірсіѳ
3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
и́с лірунлістанлірсін
subjunctive
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
ік лірѡлістѡлірші
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
ѳу ліріслістіс
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
ис лірілістілірш
1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
ме́с лірімлістімліршім
2PSecond person plural (person)
addressee (plural)
ю́с ліріѳлістіѳліршіѳ
3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
и́с лірінлістінліршін
participles
active ліранселістенслірсінс
passive лірамселістслірсімс
adverbial лірантлістуслірсѣнт

Conjugation 6
Conjugation 6 is made up entirely of irregular verbs. The most irregular verb is obviously бу́т – to be, but the verbs ѣт – to go, да́т – to do, шы́т – to see, вíт – to want, and ста́т – to be (see the section on copulas) are also highly irregular.

Бу́т
The main copula бу́т is the only verb in the language to have its own optative forms, which are used to express wishes. It is extremely irregular and suppletive, with the past and present forms derriving from two seperate verbs, and unlike most other verbs, its future conjugation is also irregular.
indicative
presentpastfuture
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
ік ѣмвасувѣшу
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
ѳу ісвассвѣсі
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
ис ірваствѣс
1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
ме́с есамве́рамвѣсім
2PSecond person plural (person)
addressee (plural)
ю́с есаѳве́раѳвѣсіѳ
3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
и́с сінтве́ранвѣсін
subjunctive
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
ік бу́ве́рѡвѣші
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
ѳу бу́све́ріс
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
ис бу́тве́рівѣш
1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
ме́с бу́мве́рімвѣшім
2PSecond person plural (person)
addressee (plural)
ю́с бу́ѳве́ріѳвѣшіѳ
3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
и́с бу́нве́рінвѣшін
participles
active весансеваренсвѣсінс
passive бу́мсеварансвѣсімс
adverbial весантварусвѣсѣнт

Ѣ́т
The verb Ѣ́т is also extremely irregular, with again suppletive present tense forms, but a regular future conjugation. Under influence from latvian, the proto-germanic past and present forms have swapped.
indicative
presentpastfuture
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
ік егюга́ѣ́шу
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
ѳу ейсга́сѣ́сі
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
ис ейтга́тѣ́с
1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
ме́с егѧмга́мѣ́сім
2PSecond person plural (person)
addressee (plural)
ю́с егѧѳга́ѳѣ́сіѳ
3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
и́с егѧнга́нѣ́сін
subjunctive
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
ік егёгѡѣ́ші
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
ѳу егисге́с
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
ис егиге́тѣ́ш
1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
ме́с егимге́мѣ́шім
2PSecond person plural (person)
addressee (plural)
ю́с егиѳге́ѳѣ́шіѳ
3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
и́с егинге́нѣ́шін
participles
active ѣ́вансеге́нсѣ́сінс
passive ѣ́вамсега́нсѣ́сімс
adverbial весантварусѣ́сѣнт

Да́т
The verb да́т, meaning “to do” is also highly irregular, but the other 3 irregular verbs are conjugated quite similarly to it.
indicative
presentpastfuture
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
ік дойдіруду́шу
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
ѳу да́сдірсду́сі
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
ис да́тдіртду́с
1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
ме́с да́мдірумду́сім
2PSecond person plural (person)
addressee (plural)
ю́с да́ѳдіруѳду́сіѳ
3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
и́с да́ндірунду́сін
subjunctive
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
ік де́дірѡду́ші
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
ѳу де́сдіріс
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
ис де́тдіріду́ш
1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
ме́с де́мдірімду́шім
2PSecond person plural (person)
addressee (plural)
ю́с де́ѳдіріѳду́шіѳ
3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
и́с де́ндірінду́шін
participles
active да́нседіренсду́сінс
passive да́мседірадсду́сімс
adverbial да́нтдірусду́сѣнт

The other irregular verbs are conjugated in a similar way, and their stems are as follows:
infinitivemeaningpresentsubjunctivepastfutureparticiple
ста́т to beста́- (стой)сте́-ста́дусту́-ста́дс
вíт to wantвí-вíи-вíдувай-вíдс
ѯы́т to seeѯы́-ѯаві-ѯо́юѯо́-ѯо́ѧнс


[edit] [top]participles

The system of participles in Tuldian is highly complex, borrowing influences from the surrounding Baltic languages. There are adjectival and adverbial participles that play different roles, and adjectival participles have a split between active and passive participles. Passive participles are declined like declension 1 adjectives, whereas the active participles have their own special declension.

Active participles
The active participles are unique in that they have their own declension unlike other adjectives, which mirrors that of an 8th declension noun (without palatalisation) in the masculine, and a 5th declension noun in the feminine. There are 3 active participles, that always end in -нс. The present active participle is formed by taking the infinitive stem (apart from бу́т, which has an irregular present active participle), and adding -анс. The past active mostly by adding -енс to the past participle stem, and the future by adding -інс to the 3rd person future form of the verb. For example, the verb ѕебт – to give has the active participles ѕебанс, егубенс and ѕебсінс in the present, past and future respectively.

Besides their uses in compound tenses, the main function of the active participle is to describe a characteristic of a noun related to an ongoing, past or future action in which the noun is the agent: шле́пе́ндіс бе́рнас – šlēpēndis bērnas – sleeping children, егютанді мѵ́ѯ – eģutandi mÿx – spilt milk, спѵдíсінс ѫгуртс – spẏdīsins jogurts – yoghurt that will spoil soon.

The past active participle may also be used to describe an action performed by the subject before the main action: ежырѧнді, авіс ін дані лѫкт – ežyŗandi, avis in dani ļokt – having heard this, the sheep fled onto the plain.

An example of the active participle declension is the present active of the verb немт – to take, although the declension of all active participles in all tenses is the same:
MasculineFeminine
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
DUDual (number)
two
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
DUDual (number)
two
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
неманснемандунемандіснеманді немандінемандас
ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
немандінемандуснеманду
GENGenitive (case)
possessive
немандіснемандіснемандѡнемандаснемандіснемандѡ
DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
немандíнемандамунемандíмнемандaйнеманда́мунеманда́м
INSInstrumental (case)
'with', 'using'
неманденеманды
LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
неманде́немандíснемандíснеманда́немандíсме́нада́с

Passive participles
The passive participles are declined exactly like normal 1st declension adjectives, and can thus take degrees of comparison. Besides their use in forming the passive, they can also be used as standard adjectives: тібрíма ражна – tibrīma ražna – a house that’s being built, вата́ еѕункенс – vatā edzunkans – water that’s been drank, ве́рс бласлы́вíсімс– vērs blaslȳvīsims– a man that will be blessed.

An example of the conjugation of a passive verb is the past passive conjugation of вісдѣлíт – to scatter, but all passive participles of all tenses are conjugated in a similar way – like regular 1st declension adjectives:
masculinefeminine
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
DUDual (number)
two
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
DUDual (number)
two
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
віседѣлтсвіседѣлтувіседѣлтівіседѣлтавіседѣлтівіседѣлтас
ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
віседѣлтанвіседѣлтусвіседѣлту
GENGenitive (case)
possessive
віседѣлтавіседѣлтісвіседѣлтѡвіседѣлтрасвіседѣлтрісвіседѣлтрѡ
DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
віседѣлтамвіседѣлтамувіседѣлтамвіседѣлтрайвіседѣлтра́мувіседѣлтемас
INSInstrumental (case)
'with', 'using'
віседѣлтанвіседѣлтемвіседѣлтрывіседѣлтеміс
LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
віседѣлта́віседѣлтíсвіседѣлтосвіседѣлтра́віседѣлтрíсвіседѣлтеніс

[edit] [top]compound tenses

perfect tense
There are 3 perfect tenses in Tuldian: present perfect, past perfect and future perfect. These perfect tenses are only in the active voice not the passive voice, and thus use the active participle. For intransitive verbs, the participle is conjugated to agree with the subject, whereas for transitive verbs they agree with the object.

An example of a the perfect indicative conjugations is двалíт- volunteer:
present perfectpast perfectfuture perfect
ік ѣм едвалинсвасу едвалинсвешу едвалинс
ѳу іс едвалинсвасс едвалинсвесі едвалинс
ис ір едвалинсваст едвалинсвес едвалинс
ѧй ір едвалиндіваст едвалиндівес едвалинді
ме́с есам едвалиндісварам едвалиндісвесім едвалиндіс
ю́с есаѳ едвалиндісвараѳ едвалиндісвесіѳ едвалиндіс
и́с сінт едвалиндісваран едвалиндісвесін едвалиндіс
ю́гь сінт едвалиндасваран едвалиндасвесін едвалиндас

The perfect usually corresponds to the English perfect tense. It has a number of different meanings, indicating that an action took place before another action, that an action has been completed (especially to influence its consequences), to emphasise duration of an action, or to indicate that an action was done at a non-specific point in a person’s life – the experiential perfect. For example:
- мíну разну ѣм еле́танду – mīnu raznu jėm elētanduI’ve left my house
- инь ір ѣвун пірву еаканду – jiņ ir jėvun pirvu eakandu he’s been afraid of it his whole life!
- Парíзей сінт епарандіс – Parīzei sint eparandisThey’ve travelled to Paris (in their life) !
- мет варам тікь ест етуѱа́ндіс , кай інѕамт – met varam tiķ est etupsāndis, kai indzamt – We’d just finished eating when he came in

passive voice
The passive voice is not expressed through the verbal morphology but is composed of the copula plus the conjugated passive participles. The present participle is used in the simple passive, whereas the past passive is used to represent the passive perfect. An example of the simple passive is the verb двалíт – to live:
present perfectpast perfectfuture perfect
ік ѣм двалíмсвасу двалíмсвешу двалíмс
ѳу іс двалíмсвасс двалíмсвесі двалíмс
ис ір двалíмсваст двалíмсвес двалíмс
ѧй ір двалíмаваст двалíмавес двалíма
ме́с есам двалíміварам двалíмівесім двалíмі
ю́с есаѳ двалíмівараѳ двалíмівесіѳ двалíмі
и́с сінт двалíміваран двалíмівесін двалíмі
ю́гь сінт двалíмасваран двалíмасвесін двалíмас

An example of the passive perfect is the кѡпа́т – to buy:
present perfectpast perfectfuture perfect
ік ѣм екѡпа́дсвасу екѡпа́дсвешу екѡпа́дс
ѳу іс екѡпа́дсвасс екѡпа́дсвесі екѡпа́дс
ис ір екѡпа́дсваст екѡпа́дсвес екѡпа́дс
ѧй ір екѡпа́даваст екѡпа́давес екѡпа́да
ме́с есам екѡпа́діварам екѡпа́дівесім екѡпа́ді
ю́с есаѳ екѡпа́дівараѳ екѡпа́дівесіѳ екѡпа́ді
и́с сінт екѡпа́діваран екѡпа́дівесін екѡпа́ді
ю́гь сінт екѡпа́дасваран екѡпа́дасвесін екѡпа́дас

Some examples of the passive include:
- падѡ ір еетанс – paduo ir eetans – the food has been eaten
- пю ѣвуні жемені варам віседѣлті – pju jėvuni žemeni varam visedėltiwe were scattered over the entire face of the earth
- Дайвы ѣм бласлыѧ́дс – Daivy jėm blaslyjādsI’ve been blessed by God
[edit] [top]the subjunctive

The subjunctive has a varied role in Tuldian. In independent clauses, it can be used as to issue more polite commands, wishes, desires, doubts, expressing possibility, or as a conditional mood. In dependent clauses, it can express purpose, result, time, opinions, or in reported speech. There are a number of verbs, conjunctions and clause heads, especially those that express necessity or desire, that require a subjunctive to follow them.

desire
The subjunctive is used after a verb that expresses a desire, but also cam ne used by itself in such cases to express an optative. In cases with such a subordinate clause containing a subjunctive, the default word order changes from V2, and the verb in the subjunctive moves to the end of the sentence. For example:
- вíду, ка дурі лукис – vīdu, ka duri luķis – I wanted you to close the door
- вѣнпы́д ве́нѧм , ка ша́ ве́стуле ѳе вела пінщ, у ка вѣлі бу́ѳ – vėnpȳd vēņam, ka šā vēstule ţe vela pinšč, u ka vėli būţ – we hope only that this letter finds you well, and that you are all healthy
- ѕíві револу́цеѧ́ – dzīvi revolūceja – long live the revolution!

The verb "to be" actually has its own optative forms seperate from the subjunctive. These are as follows:
ік сѣ
ѳу сѣс
ис сѣт
ме́с сѣм
ю́с сѣѳ
и́с сѣн


hypotheticals
The subjunctive is often used after prepositions and conjunctions that introduce a hypothetical concept, especially the words – if, - unless, - despite, and – although. It can also be used where in Modern English the word ‘might’ would be used:
- ѣр атѕемі э́ѕе пур, небайд – jėr atdzemi jēdze pur, nebaid – If I arrive before you, don’t wait for me
- разну ѳíну нелістам піжт, новай же́ двалим, – raznu ţīnu nelistam pižt, novai žē dvaļim – even though we live here, we couldn’t find your house
- ют баѕíві – jut badzīvi! – I might yet survive!

Commands or suggestions
When commanding, suggesting or recommending something, or a polite version of the imperative: the subjunctive is used in, and in a similar way to the desiderative usage the main verb moves to the front of the sentence before a subordinate clause containing a subjunctive:
- гіѕінķiѳ кафѣс – gidzinkiţ kafės – would you please drink up your coffees
- анекра́пт ка ну туѱімс – anekrāpt ka nu tupsims – he ordered us to stop immediately!
- інсаѕу ка ѕемі шін вегу – insadzu ka dzemi šin vegu – I suggest that he comes this way!

Reported speech
When reporting something that a person doesn't know for certain or heard from another source, the subjunctive is used to convey the uncertainty:
- гаѳт ка е́бан ше́ре сте́н – gaţt ka ēban šēre stēn – she said that they were here yesterday
- жырту ка рѧ́ ма́ѧ́м риріни – žyrtu ka ŗā mājām ŗiriņi – I heard that he ran away from home
- телевíзеѧ́ ва́зт зінѫ́тс, ка шы́бан ѡст ѯулі – televīzejā vāzt ziņōts, ka šȳban uost ksuli – they reported on TV that it's supposed to rain tonight

[edit] [top]the imperative

The imperative is used to issue commands and for jussive statements. It is only used in the present tense. Its endings for all persons are as follows (note there are no first person singular forms for the infinitive):
ѳу -
ис ле-(а)
ме́с -(і)сым
ю́с -(і)д
и́с ле-(а)н

The forms in brackets are used in declensions 1 and 2.
C1C2C3C4
ѳу німдíвлуѯа́вѣно́
ис ленімаледíвалелуѯа́левѣно́
ме́с німісымдíвісымлуѯа́сымвѣно́сым
ю́с німіддíвідлуѯа́двѣно́д
и́с леніманледíванлелуѯа́нлевѣно́н

Note: the forms of the imperative for the third person prefixed with ле- are literary, and in colloquial conversation its more common to use the second person infinitive with the particle "лай". So instead of saying лелуѯа́, they'd say лай луѯа́, and instead of saying лелуѯа́н, they'd say лай луѯа́д. Note also that class 1 and 2 verbs have umlaut in the imperative.

There are a small number of verbs that have irregular imperative forms:
бу́тѣ́тда́тста́т
ѳу весейду́сту́
ис люсале́ѧледу́лесту́
ме́с весыме́сымду́сымсту́сым
ю́с весте́дду́дсту́д
и́с люсанле́ѧнледу́нлесту́н

Some examples of the imperative are:
- сна́відіс да ректы – snāvidis da rekty – turn right
- сапсым пільса́ту ри сіре у ту́рні кіс спіціс уѱінѫс ста́т – sapsym piļsātu ŗi sire u tūrni kis spicis upsiņos stāt – let us build for ourself a tower whose top reaches the heavens
- рией магу! – ŗiei magu! – go away boy!
- леетан ку́ку! – leetan kūku! – let them eat cake!

[edit] [top]the copula

There are two distinct copulae use in Tuldian. The first, бу́т, is used in most circumstances, but a second, ста́т, is also used in certain circumstances. The main copula бу́т relates more to essence, whereas ста́т relates more to state. The copula ста́т is used for conditions, emotions and locations. Some examples of the differences include:
- ста́т лѧдс – stāt ļads – he's happy (currently)
- ір лѧдс – ir ļads – he's a happy person
- стой латвеѧ́ – stoi latvejā – I'm in Latvia
- стой латвеѧс – jėm latvejas – I'm from Latvia
- кева ста́с? – keva stās? – how are you?
- кева іс? – keva is? – what sort of a person are you?

When talking about the location of an object or place, the copula ста́т is always used, but when referencing an event, бу́т is used. For example:
- Рэ́жынке ста́т Латголас жіртене́ – Ŗēžynke stāt Latgolas žirtenē – Rēzekne is located in the heart of Latgalia
- мардус ір ца́ква́ – marţus ir cākvā – the wedding is in the Orthodox church

[edit] [top]reflexive verbs

Like most indo-european languages, Thuldian has a complicated system of reflexive verbs that cover a number of functions. The main functions are as true reflexive (for example: Марыѧ ѳы́ктіс - Mary washes herself), and reciprocal verbs (for example: Пѫтрус у Марыѧ дрепенс - Mary and Peter are hitting each other).

However, there are a number of other uses of reflexive verbs, such as autocausative (ридрункемс - we got drunk), anticausative (дорс аѱіна́діс - the door opened), inherent (Пѫтрус клага́діс - Peter complained) and impersonal (ис ѕѣѳтіс ка - it's said that) meanings. In many traditional grammars of Thuldian, these are all grouped as mediopassive.

Reflexive verbs are charaterised with the infinitive ending -тіс.
Their declension is generally uniform, and is as follows:

indicative
1-234future
presentpastpresentpastpresentpast
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
ік гыкосегыкосвешосветíдосклага́ѫсклага́досклага́шос
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
ѳу гіксісегыксісветасісветíдсісклага́сісклага́дсісклага́сіс
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
ис гіктісегыктісветатісветíдісклага́тісклага́діс
1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
ме́с гыкемсегокемсвешамсветíдамсклага́мсклага́дамсклага́сімс
2PSecond person plural (person)
addressee (plural)
ю́с гыкеѳсегокеѳсвешаѳсветíдаѳсклага́ѳсклага́даѳсклага́сіѳс
3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
и́с гыкенсегокенсвешансветíдансклага́нсклага́дансклага́сінс
subjunctive
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
ік гыкойсегокойсвешойсветíдойсклага́ѫйсклага́дойсклага́шіс
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
ѳу гыкісісегокісісвешісісветíдісісклага́исісклага́дісіс
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
ис гыкітісегокітісвешітісветíдітісклага́итісклага́дітіс
1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
ме́с гыкімсегокімсвешімсветíдімсклага́имсклага́дімсклага́шімс
2PSecond person plural (person)
addressee (plural)
ю́с гыкіѳсегокіѳсвешіѳсветíдіѳсклага́иѳсклага́діѳсклага́шіѳс
3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
и́с гыкінсегокінсвешінсветíдінсклага́инсклага́дінсклага́шінс

Participles are identical to normal participles, except with a prefix сы- before them, which becomes
се́- for the active and passive past participles.

[edit] [top]verbal aspects

A relatively complex part of the grammar is the system of verbal aspects, which in Thuldian has been influenced by the system found in Baltic languages. There are two different aspects in Thuldian, the perfective and imperfective. The imperfective refers to the process of action, and the perfective aspect refers to the an action viewed as a simple whole. For example, те́кт (to touch) means "to be touching", or "to be in the process of touching", whereas анте́кт means "to touch", or "to have touched". For example, you would say ас те́ку вагю - I'm touching the wall, but ас анета́ку вагю - I touched the wall. If you used the imperfective form of the verb ас ета́ку вагю, the meaning would be slightly different - I was touching the wall.

All unprefixed verbs of state and movement are of the imperfective aspect. To make a perfective form Thuldian uses a complex system of verbal prefixes, similar to those found in Baltic and Slavic languages:
prefixenglish equivalentmeaning
ан- on-, a-location or starting something
ап- off-, from-movement away from something
ат- at-reaching or remaining somewhere
ба- over-movement over, or too much of something
бі- be-sense of around, throughout, or transitiviser
віс- with-movement against or up to something
ент- contra-moving against something or more commonly as a negative or reversal
*еп- con-gathering together
ін- in-movement into something
ме- con-action is done with someone
па- fore-action occurs before or in front of something
ри- for-movement off and away, or a negative
*ті- to-suggests destruction or separation
уж- up-movement up (unproductive), or general perfectiviser
унт- under-movement down, or interruption
уп- up-movement forward, ahead or upwards
ут- out-movement away or outwards, or signifying more of something
ѧ- -just forming perfective aspect
ѳуп- through-movement through something
ѵм- circum-movement around something

*note: unproductive suffixes

However, not all prefixes are involved in the aspectual system, and some prefixes like бі-, ент- and ри- don't always form perfective verbs.
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