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Tirina Pronouns
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Pretty much what it says on the tin.
This public article was written by alynnidalar, and last updated on 3 Jun 2020, 14:14.

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Menu 1. Gender 2. The Pronouns 3. Possessive Pronouns 4. Dative Pronouns They're pronouns, they're in Tirina, there really isn't a whole lot of intro to do here. You know what a pronoun is.

Tirina has the standard first, second, and third person pronouns, with the addition of a set of "fourth" person indefinite pronouns. There are plural pronouns for each, and there's a separate set for each gender, of which there are four. Theoretically this means there "should" be 32 personal pronouns, but there actually is only 26, and only around 20 are in common usage.

Before we begin, let's go over gender briefly.

[top]Gender

Tirina pronouns have four genders, which mostly corresponds to biological gender. The genders are masculine, feminine, animate, and inanimate. Masculine and feminine should be self-explanatory. Animate covers animals, but also traditionally humans. It also covers amati, air and wind, the sky, body parts, celestial objects (the moon, etc.), motor-powered vehicles, and fire. (along with a few other things) These things are not viewed as alive, but they're not viewed as totally inanimate either. Inanimate covers everything else (plants, rocks, buildings, most types of weather, etc.).

[top]The Pronouns

MasculineFeminineAnimateInanimate
1st (sing.) uyeahuui(none)
1st (pl.) muehuimamuir(none)
2nd (sing.) yesasrısoa
2nd (pl.) me'esmahasmisnomo
3rd (sing.) yehairion
3rd (pl.) mema'anrinmon
Indefinite (sing.) ın
(covers all animate)
oro
Indefinite (pl.) mın
(covers all animate)
morn
(archaic)


The indefinite pronouns effectively mean "someone"/"something", and are used when a person or object is unknown or unclear. They are also used in some constructions such as "it's raining", where there isn't a specific thing that has performing the action (the sky?). morn is archaic; oro takes its place in all modern contexts, even when the plural is intended.

There are some groups that have lobbied for the adoption of ın/mın to be used as neuter pronouns, but it's never really caught on.

A final note is that while traditionally animate pronouns are used to refer to humans, it has become increasingly common to simply use masculine/feminine pronouns for them as well. You still see the older usage, but it's not nearly as ubiquitous as it once was.

[top]Possessive Pronouns

There aren't any. Not... really. The usual formation for indicating possession is "<possession> ni <possessor>".

I've been playing around with creating some for at least the first person (nuye and nahu, perhaps?), but currently there ain't none.

[top]Dative Pronouns

I guess you can call them that. "Indirect object" pronouns works as well. Basically, the pronoun in the sentence "I gave him a dog", which in Tirina is Nawupnarda idlekan kenye. Many of them are regular (slap ken- on a pronoun and call it a day), but many are not. Hence the following chart (irregular forms are bolded):

MasculineFeminineAnimateInanimate
1st (sing.) kenuyekenahukenu(still none)
1st (pl.) kenuekenhuimakemuir(still none)
2nd (sing.) kenyeskenaskenrıskenoa
2nd (pl.) keneskenahaskemiskenomo
3rd (sing.) kenyekenhakenirikenon
3rd (pl.) kenmekena'ankenrinkemon
Indefinite (sing.) kenın
(covers all animate)
kenoro
Indefinite (pl.) kenmın
(covers all animate)
kemorn
(archaic)


If morn is used rarely, kemorn is basically never used ever.
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