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Sáharían [SHI]
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Typology Functional 4,147 words
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Sáharían
Sáharíarn
[ˈsa.häˈʀi.äʁɴ]
Registered by CantaloupeCat on 21 November 2016
Language type Artistic Language (Artlang)
Species Human/humanoid
About Sáharían Sáharían is spoken by the people of a small island in a conworld, comparable to 6th–8th century southwestern Britain, but smaller, with fewer cultural layers, more remote, and highly isolationist for most of its fairly short history.

The language as it is on CWS represents Sáharían at the end of Sáharía's existence, and the beginning of its (near-identical) successor state Vúlnoría, after the stage where kennings, compounds (including verb-object compounds), and poetic phrases had stopped being reduced and replacing existing words (the language before that process began is called Old Sáharían).

Sáharían is mostly isolating, and its grammar relies heavily on syntax. Words can generally be used quite elastically. Its verbs and nouns are very regular, though switching between nouns/ verbs/ adjectives/ adverbs is much less so.

The common dialect is termed Lúrathen, when disambiguation is needed. Its claim to being the main form of Sáharían is held by being the dialect spoken throughout central Sáharía and the southwest (where the capital is located), and by the travelling story-tellers (to whom the name "Lúrathen" refers).

Mostly I'm working on (slowly) transferring and reorganizing the full (offsite) dictionary from a spreadsheet into a word document, filling out etymologies, verbalizations, and secondary meanings as I go, so word-adding to the CWS dictionary is slow and sporadic.
Sample of Sáharían[view] Geór súna thálane ilís / yagó shála féla falín, / ralcór sáthurór shálonal.

There I heard nothing / but the roaring sea, / the ice-cold wave.
[view all texts]
Latest vocabulary
caybírnenadvprayerfully
caybírneadjprayerful
Language family relationships
Language treeHlorasan-Erkavic
 ⤷  Proto-Hlorasan-Erkavic
  ⤷ Proto-Célibrían
   ⤷ Early Célibrían
    ⤷ Middle Célibrían
     ⤷ Tílthorían Dialect
      ⤷ Old Sáharían
       ⤷  Sáharían
[view] About Hlorasan-ErkavicA large and disparate family, with its two main branches being the Hlorasan languages (a narrow group rather comparable to the Romance languages) and the Erkavic languages (a more varied group, with multiple branches within it). There are other minor...
[view] Thúroshó (North Port)Spoken in the area around Sáharía's main harbour, its town and the Táranórn, on the north coast.

It shows significant influence from Quemar, most obviously with the phonemes d, m and z, the use of t and d as word-final codal consonants, and the shifts of ʃ to t͡s and ʒʱ to d͡z. More subtly, it uses /ʔ/ between vowelsIt also shares a few affixes kept distinct in the Lúrathen, which could have first been used in either language, as they derive from Sáharían adpositions/particles/adverbs.
[view] Ároca (Northeastern)Spoken in Sáharía's northeastern forests—its primary borderlands. Accordingly, it shows some Shêlanian influence, though also a degree of Quemari or Thúroshór influence.

Ároca has a penchant for shortening common adverbs and other pseudo-adverbs/particles. It has also unstressed e as ə and unstressed i as ɪ, voices /t/, /θ/ and /s/ next to voiced phonemes, collapses /eɪ/ ("ay", "ei", etc.) into /e/, and changes /b/ to /v/ when combined with /ʀ/ (which breaks any
combinations).
[view] Ároásh (Northwestern)Spoken in the far northwest of Sáharían. The moors, downs and coast where the Ároashánal (Northwesterners) live are the most remote part of the country inhabited, and their dialect reflects this.

Its key differences from the rest of Sáharían are that its consonants are aspirated or murmured before stressed vowels, and that it retained the Old Sáharían ð. It also retains distinct /ai/ and /ei/, as well as /au/ which went to /eo/ in other dialects.
[view] Sílcavón (Southeastern)Spoken in Sáharía's far southeast, in the forests along the coast.

Instead of the stress/pitch system of other dialects of Sáharían, Sílcavón makes use of a tense-lax distinction in its vowel system (which most other Sáharíans can't hear). As in Ároca /ʀ/ is realized as a fricative in all positions, and similarly the sequence /bʀ/ has shifted, in this case to [ʁʷ] (though some speakers still pronounce it [βʁ] in slow speech). It also features palatalization of alveolar and velar sounds
Phonology
ConsonantsBilabialLabio-
dental
DentalAlveolarPost-
Alveolar
PalatalVelarUvularGlottal
Nasal [m]1 [ɱ]2 [n̪]3 n   [ɲ]4 [ŋ]5 [ɴ]6  
Plosive b   [t̪]7 t [d]8     k g9 [q]10 [ɢ]11  
Fricative [ɸ]12 [β]13 f v θ s ʃ ʒ [ʒʱ]14   [x]15 [ɣ]16 [χ]17 [ʁ]18 h
Affricate       [t͡s]19          
Lateral approximant       l [l̪]20 [l:]21          
Approximant           j      
Trill       [r]22       ʀ [ʀʱ]23  
  1. before b, allophone of /n/
  2. before v, allophone of /n/
  3. before or after θ, allophone of /n/
  4. before j, allophone of /n/
  5. before k and g, allophone of /n/
  6. before or after ʀ, allophone of /n/
  7. after θ and before back vowels, allophone of /t/
  8. before ʀ and l, allophone of /t/
  9. also occurs as an allophone of k before ʀ and l
  10. after ʀ, allophone of /k/
  11. after ʀ, allophone of /g/
  12. before unstressed vowels, esp. word initially, allophone of /f/
  13. before unstressed vowels, esp. word initially, allophone of /v/
  14. before stressed vowels, allophone of /ʒ/
  15. free variation, allophone of /h/
  16. after ʀ, allophone of /h/
  17. free variation, allophone of /h/
  18. in codas, allophone of /ʀ/
  19. after n, allophone of /s/
  20. before or after θ, allophone of /l/
  21. before stressed vowels, allophone of /l/
  22. between b or t and i, allophone of /ʀ/
  23. before stressed vowels, allophone of /ʀ/
VowelsFrontCentralBack
Close i   u
Close-mid e   o
Mid [e̞]1   [o̞]2
Open-mid [ɛ]3    
Open a [ä]4  
Polyphthongs [aɪ]5
  1. before codal /n/ and in unstressed syllables between two stressed ones, allophone of /e/
  2. in closed syllables, allophone of /o/
  3. in non-final unstressed syllables not between two stressed ones, allophone of /e/
  4. in unstressed syllables, allophone of /a/
  5. Free variation but esp. near /e/, allophone of /eɪ/
Orthography
Below is the orthography for Sáharían. This includes all graphemes as defined in the language's phonology settings - excluding the non-distinct graphemes/polygraphs.
 SáharíanOrthography
Aa/a/, [ä]1AY ay/eɪ/, [aɪ]2Bb/b/Cc/k/, [q]3Ee/e/, [ɛ]4, [e̞]5Ff/f/, [ɸ]6Gg/g/7, [ɢ]8Hh/h/, [x]9, [χ]10, [ɣ]11Ii/i/Jj/ʒ/, [ʒʱ]12Ll/l/, [l:]13, [l̪]14
Nn/n/, [ɴ]15, [m]16, [ŋ]17, [ɲ]18, [n̪]19, [ɱ]20Oo/o/, [o̞]21Rr/ʀ/, [ʀʱ]22, [ʁ]23, [r]24, [χ]25Ss/s/, [t͡s]26SH sh/ʃ/Tt/t/, [t̪]27, [d]28TH th/θ/Uu/u/Vv/v/, [β]29Yy/j/
✖ Unknown alphabetical order
  1. in unstressed syllables
  2. Free variation but esp. near /e/
  3. after ʀ
  4. in non-final unstressed syllables not between two stressed ones
  5. before codal /n/ and in unstressed syllables between two stressed ones
  6. before unstressed vowels, esp. word initially
  7. also occurs as an allophone of k before ʀ and l
  8. after ʀ
  9. free variation
  10. free variation
  11. after ʀ
  12. before stressed vowels
  13. before stressed vowels
  14. before or after θ
  15. before or after ʀ
  16. before b
  17. before k and g
  18. before j
  19. before or after θ
  20. before v
  21. in closed syllables
  22. before stressed vowels
  23. in codas
  24. between b or t and i
  25. before voiceless obstruents
  26. after n
  27. after θ and before back vowels
  28. before ʀ and l
  29. before unstressed vowels, esp. word initially
Latest 8 related articles listed below.
Sáharían Cultural Notes
Religion, Politeness, Names, Idioms, Proverbs
31-Mar-20 04:46
Sáharíar Súval
Sáharían texts and excerpts
09-Dec-19 22:29
Numbers in Sáharían
Formation, symbols, mathematical notation and the monetary s...
24-Sep-19 16:52
Sáharían Grammar
A basic overview
27-Jun-19 20:22
Typological information for Sáharían

Base counting systemQuinary (5)
Morphosyntactic alignmentFluid-S
Primary word orderOVS
Stress marked?Yes - diacritic
Marked tense (verb)Past, Non-Past

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