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Standard Retenian [SRTA]
13▲ 13 ▼ 0
Typology Functional 3,402 words
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Standard Retenian
Istandáren rayta
[ĭstɐnˈdaɾen ˈraytɐ]
Registered by Victorinox on 24 October 2020
Language type A posteriori
Place & SpeakersStandard Retenian is spoken by a population of around 120,000,000 in Retenia (a fictionnal island in the Atlantic Ocean between Galicia, Bretagne and Açores) and diaspora.
Species Human/humanoid
About Standard Retenian Standard retenian is an Indo-European language spoken in  Retenia . It's part of the sub-family of Retenics languages. The ancestors of retenians arrived between 2000 BC and 1700 BC on the island of Retenia (coming from the Pontic Steppe), where they mix with the "Aratti" autochtones in the fertile central plain watered by Nimatara river and its tributaries where they brought their language ( Proto Retenian) before extend their territory but the history of retenians is very complex.

Some particularities of most of actuals retenian dialects (and also Standard Retenian) is that the morphology is more agglutinative than flexional and the scarcity of consonnants clusters (except for the westerns mountains dialects).

Retenian has a distinction beetween animate / inanimate:
Definite article: "se" inanimate, "so" animate.
Indefinite article: "ne" inanimate, "no" animate.
Regulars verbs at third person:
-k end for inanimate singular
-kes end for inanimate plural
-s end for animate singular
-sun end for animate plural

When we speak at the third person animate and we want to say if the subject is feminine or masculine (for human or animals), it's possible to add optionnals pronouns at subject position:

Ew = he Ey = he plural
La = She Lay = She plural
No pronouns = neutral (because -s / -sun end is neutral)

Ex: (Ew/La) ibara te adas. - he/she eats apple
(Ey/Lay) ibara te adásun. -They eats apple
Ibara se ketak. - The apple falls

Ew/La pronouns were borrowed from Antareyan dialect who borrowed them from  Latsinoyu, a latin language spoken in the coast of Antareya province (South-East) by around 200 000 speakers.
Sample of Standard Retenian[view] Sama mankúnay kásen tsow îshu ba hokarentesh tsow rêtu jenásun. kew rashyon tsow anatsu nedatu tsun tshe kew rātsháke kadukâra naha awzima kāshtá nenkásun.

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
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Latest vocabulary
bofasorávsimplify
ekangongerávsimplify
ebangongerávcomplicate
Sound samples in Standard Retenian
Some sound samples of Standard Retenian. Maximum of 6 shown. Click the links to see the full texts.
Sama mankúnay kásen tsow îshu ba hokarentesh tsow rêtu jenásun. kew rashyon tsow anatsu nedatu tsun ...
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and con...
Language family relationships
Language treeIndo-European
 ⤷ Proto-Indo-European
  ⤷  Proto Retenian
   ⤷ Central plain retenian (many dialects)
    ⤷  Old Retenian
     ⤷  Taurayan
      ⤷ Nimarran Retenian
       ⤷  Standard Retenian
[view] About Indo-EuropeanThis family tree includes only the main branches and the branches that are too small to be shown separately. See separate main branches for further detail.
[view] Fúnen narájin - Kutájin antárjin (Lower Naran - Northern Antarian)This dialect is spoken in the area between the central plain and the eastern plateau.
In this dialect, the influence from Old Antarian and Latin is more important compared to Standard Retenian but there is less celtic and dunaric influence.
[view] Kutóshin rayta (North-Eastern Retenian)This dialect has a vocabulary more influenced by Galahian Celtic (related to Gaulish) but also from Gaelic due to a settlement of peoples from Ireland and Britain during the Middle-Ages.

The pronounciation is a little bit different
[view] Bahúzenin Rayta (South-western retenian)Bahúzenin Rayta is an unofficial dialect of Standard Retenian, it's the result of the influence locals dialects (regionals languages) on Standard Retenian spoken in South-West of Retenia. So accent and pronunciation is a little bit different. The vocabulary is also more influenced by Portuguese due to the former portuguese rule on theses provinces.

Mains sounds changes:
b > β or v except at beginning of words
Phonology
ConsonantsBilabialLabio-
dental
AlveolarPost-
Alveolar
PalatalLabio-
velar
VelarGlottal
Nasal m   n   ɲ      
Plosive p b   t d   [c]1 [ɟ]2   k g  
Fricative   f s z ʃ ʒ [ç]3   x h [ɦ]4
Affricate     t͡s [d͡z]5 t͡ʃ [d͡ʒ]6        
Lateral approximant     l          
Approximant   ʋ     j w    
Trill     r          
Flap     [ɾ]7          
  1. allophone of /k/
  2. allophone of /g/
  3. allophone of /h/
  4. allophone of /h/
  5. allophone of /z/
  6. allophone of /ʒ/
  7. allophone of /r/
VowelsFrontNear-
front
CentralBack
Close i i:   [ɨ]1 [ʉ]2 [ɯ]3 u u:
Near-close   [ɪ]4    
Close-mid [e]5     [o]6
Mid     [ə]7  
Open-mid ɛ ɛ:     ɔ ɔ:
Near-open     [ɐ]8  
Open a a:      
  1. allophone of /i/
  2. allophone of /u/
  3. allophone of /u/
  4. allophone of /i/
  5. allophone of /ɛ/
  6. allophone of /ɔ/
  7. allophone of /a/
  8. allophone of /a/
Syllable StructureMostly CV
Sometimes CVC
Rarely CCV
Ts, Sh, Tsh and Kh are not consonant clusters because they are one consonant
Stress informationPrimary stress is very important in Retenian because it's phonemic.
It occure on the penultimate syllable when thé word end with a vowel and on the last syllable when the word end with a consonnant. If the word don't follow this pattern, the stress is indicate with diacritics:
á, é, í, ó, ú if it's on a short vowel and â, ê, î, ô, û if it's on a long vowel

Ps: Long vowel are always marked with a diacritic

Secondary stress is not important in Retenian, it's only for the rythm.
It only occure in words of 3 syllables or more.

Stress often affect the way that a vowel is pronounced.
Orthography
Below is the orthography for Standard Retenian. This includes all graphemes as defined in the language's phonology settings - excluding the non-distinct graphemes/polygraphs.
 Standard RetenianOrthography
Aa/a/, [ɐ], [ə]Bb/b/Dd/d/Ee/ɛ/, [e]Ff/f/Gg/g/, [ɟ]Hh/h/, [ɦ], [ç]Ii/i/, [ɨ], [ɪ]Jj/ʒ/, [d͡ʒ]Kk/k/, [c]KH kh/x/
Ll/l/Mm/m/Nn/n/NY ny/ɲ/Oo/ɔ/, [o]Pp/p/Rr/r/, [ɾ]Ss/s/SH sh/ʃ/Tt/t/TS ts/t͡s/
TSH tsh/t͡ʃ/Uu/u/, [ɯ], [ʉ]Vv/ʋ/Ww/w/Yy/j/Zz/z/, [d͡z]Āā/a:/Ēē/ɛ:/Īī/i:/Ōō/ɔ:/Ūū/u:/
✔ Shown in correct order
    Conscript
    Additional NotesStandard Retenian uses 2 writing systems:
    -The traditionnal Retenian Anenarian semi-syllabary, devired from Phoenician abjad and used since ~700 BC
    -The latin alphabet

    During the period of Amarenu Dynasty, Old Retenian was written with a logographic/hieroglyphic script that evoluted from pre-retenian proto script.

    Only in loanwords:
    - Br, dr, pr, tr, kr

    Only in very recents loanwords:
    - V at the beginning at the word (pronounced [ʋ],[β] or [w] depending the accent).
    Latest 8 related articles listed below.
    Verbs 08-Sep-21 09:19
    Retenia
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    22-Aug-21 00:17
    Idioms and proverbs
    This article is a list of idioms and proverbs, it will be gr...
    18-Aug-21 19:50
    History of Retenia
    Main historical dates
    12-Mar-21 11:13
    Lessons (2)
    1The Retenian syllabary
    2Postpositional clitics
    Typological information for Standard Retenian

    Animacy distinctionsAnimate/Inanimate
    Noun numbersSingular/Plural
    Noun-adjective orderAdjective first
    Phonemic vowel lengthShort/Long
    Primary word orderSOV

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