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Achiyitqan pronouns
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who did what now
This public article was written by severy, and last updated on 8 May 2016, 06:55.

[comments] Menu 1. Standalone pronouns 2. Subject suffixes 3. Incorporated objects There are three types of pronoun in Achiyitqan: standalone, incorporated objects, and suffixed subjects. All pronouns decline by person and number, and animacy in the third person, and the standalone pronouns also decline by case.

The suffix pronouns must not be confused for verbal agreement; they cannot co-occur with a standalone subject. The only verbal agreement in ACY is a plural subject agreement marker, which only appears if there is no suffix pronoun.

[top]Standalone pronouns

The standalone pronouns, also sometimes just called the pronouns, come in three cases, four persons, two numbers, and, in the third person, three animacy categories.

The fifth person (plural) pronoun is used for generic persons; "they" say that, "one" should, etc.

Pronouns123.AN3.MOD3.IN5
NOMSG'iptaasssik'a
PLmiwhisitsitacikaɥi
ACCSGiwaataaisiskaaak
PLmunhunisnuisnuiqun
DATSGpiwnaabsig
PLmignaabsikka

'ip tów naab
'ip
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
tów
see
naab
2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
.DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location

'I saw you'

sik gitssqa
sik
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.MODModerate (animacy)
not-quite-animate
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
gi-
PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
-
tsiqa
smile

'It smiles'

miw iimuta
miw
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
ii-
REMRemote past (tense)
'a long time ago'
.PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-
mut
run
-a
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few

'We ran (long ago)'

'a tikuwomi
'a
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.INInanimate (gender/class)
for non-living things
.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INInanimate (gender/class)
for non-living things
TR argument
tikuw
find
-omi
PASSPassive voice (valency)
be verb-ed

'It was found'

[top]Subject suffixes

It is generally preferred to use a suffix subject in place of a standalone subject pronoun, but they are blocked when other little v devices (such as the passive) are present on the verb. Standalone subjects are also found - occasionally - in archaic or artistic forms, or to give particular emphasis to the subject, but this is infrequent. As a result of this, the subject suffixes are much more common than the standalone pronouns. Many of the suffixed forms resemble their standalone counterparts, but not entirely.

Suffixes123.AN3.MOD3.IN5
SG-ap-ta-s-sik-'a
PL-ma-his-t, -at-sit-k, -ik-kai


tówap naab
tów
see
-ap
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
naab
2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
.DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location

'I saw you'

gitsiqasik
gi-
PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
tsiqa
smile
sik
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.MODModerate (animacy)
not-quite-animate

'It smiles'

iimuima
ii-
REMRemote past (tense)
'a long time ago'
.PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
mut
run
-ma
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few

'We ran (long ago)'

[top]Incorporated objects

Incorporated object pronouns, also called object prefixes, are the only thing that can break the usual object incorporation rules of Achiyitqan; generally, only indefinite objects of ambiguous number and with no overt case marking are incorporated. However, since the pronouns are one fused morpheme which encodes person, number and case in one unit, they are incorporated wholly. They do resemble the standalone object pronouns, but are not identical.

Prefixes123.AN3.MOD3.IN
SG'iw-ta-is-ik-(w)aa(t)-*
PLmiw-ha-qi-sey-qi-

iyaatikuwap
ii-
REMRemote past (tense)
'a long time ago'
.PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
aa-
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.INInanimate (gender/class)
for non-living things
tikuw
find
-ap
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity

'I found it (long ago)'

kamuuwin giaataki
ka-
DEFDefinite
"the"
-
muuwi
seal
-n
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
gi-
PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
aa-
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.INInanimate (gender/class)
for non-living things
aki
eat

'The seal eats it'

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