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Adzamian pronouns
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This public article was written by severy, and last updated on 1 Dec 2019, 02:36.

[comments] Menu 1. First person 2. Second person 3. Third person 4. Fourth person (obviative)
!Warning!
This article has been marked as out of date. There's a possibility that some information is incorrect.

Many of these forms may be changing due to re-derivation.

 Old Adzamian pronouns are simple in one way - there are only three cases: direct, genitive, and reflexive. However they decline into four/five persons, two politeness categories, four animate genders and seven other animacies.

Most of the polite forms are easily-deconstructed as having the prefix ma(k)-, however sometimes it is more complicated. The possessive pronouns are generally marked by the suffix -q (and may cause consonant harmony in preceding alveolars).

[top]First person

There is no gender or animacy distinction for first person, making it the simplest. However, there are both inclusive and exclusive plural first persons.

NumberCasualFormal
SGatomakyeto
SG.GENaroqmakyeroq
PL.INCLaþakmaaþak
INCL.GENaþaqamaaþaqo
PL.EXCLatwemakaatwe
EXCL.GENarweqmakaarweq

The reflexives do not have formal forms, and are la, þo, tew respectively.

Ato hi-balaan.
[ɐtʌ hɪbɐlɑ:n]
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
PROXProximal (proximity)
close to speaker
-walk
'I walk.'

Aþak hi-balaan.
[ɐðɐk hɪbɐlɑ:n]
12First person inclusive (person)
speaker and addressee; you and me/us
PROXProximal (proximity)
close to speaker
-walk
'We (and you) walk.'

Ato arwe-q idrekka-yik ya-axe.
[ɐtʌ ɐʁwɛq ɪdʁɛk'ɐjɪk jɑ:ɣɛ]
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
.GENGenitive (case)
possessive
home-SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
MFUnknown code-see
'I see our (not your) home.'

[top]Second person

Unlike in English, second person does decline for gender: masculine, feminine, lethe*, benthi*, and neuter (which covers persons of unknown gender, and non-sentients.)

SGMFLBNPL
DIRrutasevihokko
DIR.FOmaarumaktamaksemakvimaahomakko
GENruqraqseqviqhoqqqo
GEN.FOmaaruqmaraqmakseqmakviqmaaqmaqqo

The reflexive particles do not conjugate for gender or politeness and are caa (singular) and kkele (plural), respectively.

Ato na hi-axe.
[ɐtʌ nɐ hɑ:ɣɛ]
1S 2S.F PROX-see
'I see you (a girl/woman).'

Vi hi-lilun-aste.
[fɪ hɪlɪlʏnɐst]
2S.B PROX-pretty-be
"You (a benthi) are pretty."

Qqo idrekka-yik haat hi-aste.
[q'ʌ ɪdʁɛk'ɐjɪk hɑ:t hɪst]
2P.GEN home-SG DEM.PROX PROX-be
"This is your (PL)'s home."

*The Adzamic cultures recognizes four human genders: rukrar, sena, lethe, and benthi. Roughly cis men, cis women, trans men, trans women. For purposes of this article, the glossing abbreviations M, F, S, and B (and N neuter) will be used respectively. This article goes into more detail.

[top]Third person

The third person behaves quite similarly to the second, although the five genders are only used for sentient arguments.

SGMFSBPL
directunnaesiidzöö
DIR.FOmahyumaxnaamahyemahiimaköö
GENunqunaqesqaiqqarööq
GEN.FOmahyuqmaxnaaqmahyeqmahiiqmaqöö

The singular reflexive is to and the plural reflexive is .

Un es hi-axe.
[ʊn ɛs hɑ:ɣɛ]
3S.M 3S.S PROX-see
"He sees em."

Mahyu ilruk hist.
[mɐhjʊ ɪlbɐkχʌ hɪst]
3S.M.FO DEF-king PROX-be
"He (formal) is the king."

Non-personsSGSG.GENPLPL.GEN
inanimatekakaqkixkirq
instrumenttiriqtiþriq
fluidhithirqaqotqorqa
planttaraqþaþaq
animalsasaqsusuq
sacredlonlonqvenvenq

The nonhuman forms do not have a formal third-person form. (Note that the Four deities may be referred to with Sacred forms, or a Human form that matches their gender.)

[top]Fourth person (obviative)

Adzamian distinguishes a fourth person, or the obviate, which does not exist in English. Obviative arguments are non-present, distal, demoted, or less active third-persons. The obviative pronouns are all suffixes which appear on the verb. Some examples:

Un hi-takk-ana [ʊn hɪtɐk'ɐnɐ] 3S.M PROX-hit-3S.F 'He hits her' Ta il-rukkrar leen-dask nena, baqo leen-ist-uqa? [tɐ ɪlbɐkχɐχ le:ndɐsk nɛnɐ, bɐqʌ le:nɪstʏqɐ?] 2S.F DEF-man DB-meet yesterday, who DB-be-4S.M? 'The man you met back a ways yesterday, who was he?' Kaetes þar-biza hi-st, ru tam-va-keeyü-le? [kaɛtɛs θɐʁbɪʒɐ hɪst, rʊ tɐmvɐke:jʏlɛ?] Kaetes POSS-necklace PROX-be, 2S.M away-HORT-give-4S.SE? 'This is Kaetes' necklace, would you go give it to zir?'


obviate personsMFLBNPL
OBV-uqa-ana-le-iim-(w)o-yö

non-person obvssingularplural
inanimate-ik-ix
instrument-it-iþ
fluid-ao-qo
plant-a-aþ
animal-at-su
sacred-on-ov

The non-person obviative pronouns are very similar to their corresponding nominal number/class markers.
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