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Modality
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A look at deontic and epitemic modality.
This public article was written by Graig, and last updated on 23 Aug 2016, 05:32.

[comments] Menu 1. Introduction 2. Deontic Modes 3. Epistemic Modes It is more common than not, in non-European languages, to make a distinction between Deontic, or Situational Modality, and Epistemic Modality. Let's take a look at how this plays out in Beoǧǧan...
[top]Introduction

Terms
Deontic Modality refers to the ability, permission or obligation of an action. For example, the English sentence I can walk expresses ones ability to perambulate. Similarly, I should walk expresses a degree of obligation, and I must walk a stronger degree of obligation. 
Epistemic Modality on the other hand is used to express degrees of confidence in information. He could be here implies a relatively neutral commitment to the voracity of ones statement. He must be here implies a very strong degree of expectation or commitment to the utterance.

Muddling in English
Like (almost?) all European languages, English uses the same vocabulary for both types of modal clause, garnering distinction from context, subtle usage variation, and prosodic features. Take the sentence He should be here - simply by shifting the stress from be to should, the meaning varies between He ought to be here to I think he's here, somewhere.
This is, however, a relatively rare situation outside of Europe. In other languages, either only some of the terms overlaps, or, as is most common, none of them do.

In Beoǧǧan
Beoǧǧan follows suit with most natural languages on earth in keeping deontic and epistemic modal constructions distinct. There are four major categories of deontic expression, and three major levels of epistemic. All terms are derived from existing vocabulary - that is to say, they are not special verb endings or auxiliary vocabulary, but terms derived from other words.

[top]Deontic Modes

It is arguable whether or not treating deontic modals separately form other adjectives is even valid in Beoǧǧan. In every way they are the same. However, given the special place for modal phrases in linguistics, it is useful to highlight them separately, at least.
The four typical deontic modal types are the abilitative kraig, permissive cmauctark, suggestive gfophark, and necessitative cteithark. As is probably clear, all of these adverbs are derived from verbs except kraig. The permissive, suggestive and necessitative are derived from the verbs permit, oblige, and bind respectively, though they are arguably more frequently used as adverbs in modal construction than as verbs unto themselves. In speech, a small cesura is frequently inserted between the modal adverb and the head verb itself, one of the few distinguishing features of modal adjectives. This is marked with a comma in transliteration.

Tro
PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
.PERFPerfect (aspect/tense)
have verb-ed
=
kraig,
ABILAbilitative (mood)
expresses ability
phot-et,
do-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.AVAgent trigger (voice)
Austronesian alignment; triggers Nom-Acc
oth
but
ä
NEGNegative (polarity)
not
phot-et.
do-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.AVAgent trigger (voice)
Austronesian alignment; triggers Nom-Acc

I could have, but I didn’t

Cmauctark,
PERMPermissive (mood)
the action is permitted
däx
out
dyäcp-ä,
go-2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
.AVAgent trigger (voice)
Austronesian alignment; triggers Nom-Acc
ǧun
if
cteithark,
NECNecessitative mood (mood)
must, have to
dyäcp-ä.
go-2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
.AVAgent trigger (voice)
Austronesian alignment; triggers Nom-Acc

You can leave if you need to.

Gfophark,
SUGGSuggestive mood (mood)
suggestion, 'should', 'ought'
test-eg
be.clothed-3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
.PVPatient trigger (voice)
Austronesian alignment; triggers ERG-ABS
kye-pren-era
rule-person-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
.DRDirect (case)
unmarked case, vs oblique or indirect
fǧeo-tast-astit
protect-clothing-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
.DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
maic.
over

Ordersmen should wear protection.

 Ä
NEGNegative (polarity)
not
cteithark,
NECNecessitative mood (mood)
must, have to
ǧa
in
dyäcp!
go

Do not enter!

[top]Epistemic Modes

The three levels of epistemic modality in Beoǧǧen correspond roughly to English could, may, and should. Each of these can be strengthened by the application of wom good, well or weakened with iux small. Unlike deontic modal constructions, plain verbs are used for epistemics. The modal verb follows it's head directly. They can be considered to run along a scale from least commitment to statement to most commitment thus; paiph hear, grauxm be possible, and stug decide.

Stäw-ark
need-ADJAdjectival
syntactic
brais-es
drink-2PSecond person plural (person)
addressee (plural)
.PVPatient trigger (voice)
Austronesian alignment; triggers ERG-ABS
wom
well
stug.
decide

You must be thirsty

Paiph-eg
hear-3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
.PVPatient trigger (voice)
Austronesian alignment; triggers ERG-ABS
iux
small
paiph,
hear
tou.
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving
.IDRIndirect (case)
indirect or oblique, vs direct

She could have heard them...?

Dyä
NPSTNon-past (tense)
present, continuous and future
.PERFPerfect (aspect/tense)
have verb-ed
=
skiuj
already
präp-äd
come-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.AVAgent trigger (voice)
Austronesian alignment; triggers Nom-Acc
grauxm,
be.possible
ǧeit-an.
here-LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc

He may already be here.


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