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Construction & Declension of Personal Pronouns in Velenian
This public article was written by [Deactivated User] on 28 Jun 2018, 13:33.

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Menu 1. Personal Pronouns 2. Relative Pronouns 3. Reflexive Pronouns 4. Demonstrative Pronouns 5. Indifinite Pronouns Pronouns in Velenian are grouped into 5 categories: Personal, Relative, Reflexive, Demonstrative, and Indefinite.

[top]Personal Pronouns

These are pretty straightforward; they’re much the same as the ones we use in English, for example. It’s “I” or “you” or “them” or “it”. In English, we make distinctions in person and in number, with 3 persons (1st, 2nd, and 3rd person) and 2 ‘numbers’ (singular and plural).

Velenian has persons and numbers as well as case, as we know from German, for example. The persons and numbers are actually the same as in English, while there are 5 different cases - the same cases used for Nouns.

While there isn’t anything inherently systematic about the English pronouns, there is in the Velenian ones. The personal pronouns are three-letter words where the first denotes which person, the second which number, and the third which case. Example:

Umi

The U means it’s second-person, the m is for plural and the i is dative - so this would loosely translate as “to/for you(pl)”.
Here is a table to show the individual parts of a Velenian personal pronoun:

PersonNumberCase
I
(1st)
N
(Singular)
U
(Nominative)
U
(2nd)
M
(Plural)
O
(Accusative)
O
(3rd)
I
(Dative)
A
(Locative)
η
(Instrumental)


[top]Relative Pronouns

These pronouns are used as placeholders for other things, places or people. In English, these would be “Who/which/that” and those are ordered loosely according to whether the thing relating to is a person (who/which) or an object (which/that). Velenian doesn’t do that; it looks at the noun categories (N1, N2, and N3) instead.
The relative pronouns therefore also fall into three categories, or genders, and decline into all five cases. Note that they do not decline in number:

N1
N2
N3
NOM
Al
El
Ol
ACC
Ā
Ē
Ō
DAT
Āl
Ēl
Ōl
LOC
La
Li
Uo
INS
ηl
Il
Ul


For example, if we had the sentence “I put the book on the table, which is black” it would become:

Grazηrej inu d’Ōōveō dā Tōqroη lηno, Yon’āl o Ēco.

The above example is the formal and most standard way of writing it, but such relative clauses can also be right after the thing they relate to, as such:

Grazηrej inu d’Ōōveō dā Tōqroη, Yon’āl o Ēco, lηno.

This way, the prepositional phrase is split up by the relative clause, but there is no room for any ambiguity. It isn’t recognized by the general populace as correct, but it makes sense and would at most get a stern look.

[top]Reflexive Pronouns

[top]Demonstrative Pronouns

[top]Indifinite Pronouns

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