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Pronouns and possession
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Personal pronouns, demonstrative pronouns and an overview over how possession is expressed
This public article was written by Jute, and last updated on 15 Jan 2019, 16:50.

[comments] Menu 1. Personal pronouns 2. Demonstrative pronouns 3. Possessive pronouns and possession 4. Emphasizing (reflexive) pronouns
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Pronouns and possession


[top]Personal pronouns


Personal pronouns are rather complex, and some forms are thought to be almost unique to Jutean. The inanimate pronouns are gendered, the 3rd person pronoun referring to humans however doesn't make distinctions.

Person1st2nd3rd3rd (plants and animals)3rd (inanimate - C., I., W.*)
Singulartanalauvuaha, ehi, ohu
Pluralfa (incl.),
fanal (excl. a single person)
fanafal (excl. multiple persons)
naflafuvufahaf, ehif, ohuf
Collectivefa (incl.)
fafanal (excl. of a group)
fanfaluvuf, fuvu (rarely)ahaf, ehif, ohuf (+ a af/efi/uf)
*C. = Common/civilization gender, I. = Immaterial/abstract gender, W. = Wilderness gender

Colloquially and in some dialects (e.g Sitti), "aha, ehi, ohu" might be used for both singular and plural, and "af, efi, uf" for collective and in some cases also plural.

For the indirect case, the particle he is put in front of the pronoun, for the oblique case the circumferential particle me ... ma is used.

[top]Demonstrative pronouns


They are distinguished by gender and distance (proximal, medial and distal) and don't decline.

GenderCommonAbstact/ImmaterialWilderness
Proximaljajiju
Medialjamjimjum
Distaljahajahijahu


[top]Possessive pronouns and possession


Jutean has no possessive pronouns. The preposition a + noun or personal pronoun in the oblique case are used to indicate the inalienable possessor, or another kind of relationship or authorship.

Vunam a me laf ma Their parent(s) ('Parent(s) of them')
Hotif a me ta ma My book [a book that I wrote] ('Book of me')
Ova a vuhatatede The top of the mountain ('Top of mountain-OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
')

For alienable possession, a relative nominalization is used, so for example:
Vailita a vohi a me ta ma Vehicle that I use
Vehicle of use-GERGerund
verbal noun
of OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
('Vehicle of using of me')


Hotif a fuumohi a me ta ma Book that I read
Book of read-GERGerund
verbal noun
of OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
('book of reading of me')


Nijauva a sehukohi a vunamede Cat that parent(s) care for
Cat of care-GERGerund
verbal noun
of parent-OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
('cat of caring of parent(s)')


[top]Emphasizing (reflexive) pronouns


A rarely used additional set of pronouns that sometimes is used to emphasize a pronoun to make it clear that no one else is being addressed, similar to a stressed pronoun in English as in for example "You should calm down first.". Often referring or demanding a reflexive action (action done by the person to themselves), and hence translated as e.g. "you yourself" or "on/of your own".

They replace a regular personal pronoun rather than attaching to it as an object, and can be used even with unergative verbs where a regular reflexive voice can't be used.

Examples:
Momo nana noke, haanol? How about you chill?
IMPImperative (mood)
command
-calm 2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
-EMPEmphatic
stressed or emphasised
maybe | why-NEGNegative (polarity)
not


No vutani a tavuheohi a me nana ma. The problems are for you yourself to remove (=solve)
problem of remove-GERGerund
verbal noun
of OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
-EMPEmphatic
stressed or emphasised
OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object


Alal, Jon. No nana fesuu. No, John. You are the demon.
No | John | Be 2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
-EMPEmphatic
stressed or emphasised
demon


Nono nana. Be yourself [and not someone else]
IMPImperative (mood)
command
-be 2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
-EMPEmphatic
stressed or emphasised


Saihoko tata a tohide a hei. I like myself the current way (= the way I am now)
Like 1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
-EMPEmphatic
stressed or emphasised


As can be seen, they are formed by reduplicating the pronoun they are replacing, or, in the case of first person exclusive pronouns, the first syllable.
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