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Hlung verbs scratchpad
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This public article was written by protondonor, and last updated on 1 Mar 2021, 22:08.

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(agent) - evidential/polarity - (applicative object - applicative) - (incorporated object) - patient or experiencer - tense - aspect - mood - stem - (adverbial interstitials) - (subordinator)


intransitive subject of 1st or 2nd person is marked by the agent prefix.
intransitive subject of 3rd person is marked by the patient or experiencer prefix.

agent:
agent prefix harmonizes with the evidential/polarity prefix, if present. (if not, then with the beginning of the next harmony domain)
agent prefixes:
- ŋe - 1SG
- ma - 1EXCL
- ŋo - 1INCL
- ri - 2SG
- i - 2PL
- to - 3AN.SG
- ñe - 3INAN
- je - 3PL
- max - passive

evidential/polarity:
evidential/polarity prefixes do not harmonize.
- (null) - witnessed/direct, affirmative
- nạ - hearsay
- ñi - inferential
- pa - negative

applicatives:
applicative objects are either incorporated or marked by a classifier prefix. in either case they are also marked by a following prefix indicating the nature of the applicative. this prefix harmonizes with the incorporated object or classifier prefix.
applicative object prefixes:
- (person)
- ñụp - animal
- pe - thing
- (multiple people)
- (multiple things)
- nạr - time
- xaa - place
for speech act participants, the patient/experiencer prefixes are used.

morphemes for indicating benefactive, locative, and instrumental applicative types
- tahamuwi - without
- nạ - in (can be locative e.g. I am singing inside my house, or instrumental e.g. I am washing clothes in the laundry machine)
- na - instrumental
- raha - benefactive, dative
- sehe - allative
- saña - during
- ụmụ - at (a location), near (a thing or person)

patient or experiencer or incorporated object:
if there is no incorporated object, the patient/experiencer prefix harmonizes with the verb stem.
if there is an incorporated object, it constitutes its own harmony domain and is not coindexed by a patient/experiencer prefix.

patient/experiencer prefixes:
- n - 1SG
- ñu - 1EXCL
- ma - 1INCL
- rii - 2SG
- yi - 2PL
- tu - 3AN.SG
- in - 3INAN
- ja - 3PL
- kwa - REFL

TAM affixes:
- (null) - present, indicative, imperfective
- ye - recent past
- dah - remote past
- ruw - future
- law - perfective
- nawex - habitual
- (reduplicated verb stem) - frequentative, iterative
- so - subjunctive
- ław - conditional/potential
- saŋ - optative
- ex - imperative
- sek - desiderative
harmonize with the verb stem

adverbial interstitials:
- hil - kindly, fondly, happily
- apaa - carefully, cautiously
- nuuwa - unfortunately
- jaa - very
TBD

coordinators & subordinators:
- rali - and
- ạạn - or (inclusive)
- puun - or (exclusive)
- se - that (can be used for a relative clause modifying an argument to a previous verb, especially an incorporated object)
- nạŋ - because (same subject)
- tinaŋ - because (different subject)
- peheku - but (DS)
- kati - but (SS)
- peheta - then (SS)
- pehetu - then (DS)
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