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Niđalosa Ušivart - Nithalosian Particles
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Reference for Nithalosian particles
This public article was written by hashi, and last updated on 1 Sep 2017, 21:49.

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1. ađ - only, just
2. am - and (inexhaustive)
3. aks - into (translative)
4. al - in, at (locative), on (time)
5. alna (relational locative)
6. da - because of, thanks to, according to
7. đu - around, amongst, about
8. vai - or (zero-sum)
9. vas / vaš - with, using, by means of (instrumental)
10. vi - from / since
11. voi - only, just, even, despite
12. vo / vu / lo - too, also, as well
13. eg / ey - to, for (dative)
14. i - and (exhaustive)
15. li - or (optional)
16. gi - for (period of time)
17. go - with, by
18. mae - before, in (amount of time)
19. mea - up to, until (terminative)
20. na (numerative / quantifier)
21. no - between, during, through, by
22. nu - within, inside, in
23. oe - above, on top of
24. om - about (topic)
25. ona - relational possessive
26. or - for, to, in order to, so that (benefactive)
27. po (quotative)
28. s / se / es (emphatic particle)
29. so - when
30. šo - as, like (essive)
31. štei - under, below, less than (subessive)
32. to - to (direction)
33. ula - over, above, more than
34. us - without (abessive)
35. uši / ušira - behind, after, ago

!Warning!
This article has been marked as out of date. There's a possibility that some information is incorrect.


The particles in Nithalosian must always follow the noun they describe or relate to. For example, “with my friend” becomes ana yuda go (lit. my friend with) in Nithalos. The particles are always spelled in lowercase - even in titles.

[top]ađ - only, just

is the same as voi, but without the negative connotations.

An niđalos vas vomiša. 1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
nithalos INSInstrumental (case)
'with', 'using'
only speak-POTPotential (mood)
likely events, ability
I speak only Nithalosian.


Eđvuli kutniva. cabbage only buy-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
I just bought cabbages (nothing else).


[top]am - and (inexhaustive)

am shows an incomplete list, and should not be used to list any more than three items. This particle is not productive.

An pogeđpada al keviu am govau skamiva. 1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
animal.place LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
snake-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
and bat-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
see-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
At the zoo, I saw snakes and bats [and other things]


[top]aks - into (translative)

aks shows a change or transition from one thing/state to another. When using aks with adjectives, traditionally the adjectives must take the -vi suffix. However, this is becoming no longer the case, and the -vi is dropped.

An kagau uršovi aks suiva. 1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
music-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
loud-COMPComparative
e.g. 'better'
TRANSLTranslative (case)
becoming
cause-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
I turned up the music (lit: I made music into [something] louder)


An midoenau yoisođ šuke aks rorila. 1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
green.thing-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
delicious meal TRANSLTranslative (case)
becoming
cook-AORAorist (tense/aspect)
usually the simple past
I cooked the vegetables into a delicious meal.


aks is often shortened and added to the end of an adjective. This is usually shortened to 'ks.

An kagau uršo'ks suiva. 1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
music-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
loud-TRANSLTranslative (case)
becoming
cause-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
I turned up the music (lit: I made music into [something] louder)


[top]al - in, at (locative), on (time)

When using the verb ari ('to be') with al, the entire verb can be dropped.

Larđa nivam al [ari]. Lartha garden LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
[be-PRSPresent Tense (tense)] Lartha is in the garden.


An škol al Niđalosa adegu ušni. 1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
school LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
nithalos-GENGenitive (case)
possessive
language-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
learn-PRSPresent Tense (tense) I learn Nithalos [language] at school.


Al can also be shortened in speech, or in prose (such as songs or poems) where syllable conservation is needed. This is generally shortened to 'l, and can only be done so after nouns ending in a vowel.

Roka'l omtorau asiva hand-LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
bird-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
have-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
I held the bird in [my] hand[s].


When specifying 'at' a particular point in time (for example, 'on wednesday'), you can use al.

Veia'l enau kuđniđa. wednesday-TEMPTemporal (case)
specifying time (at one, on Monday, etc.)
thing-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
buy-FUTFuture (tense)
action occurring after the moment of speech
.IRRIrrealis
mood
I will buy things on Wednesday.


[top]alna (relational locative)

This can be loosely translated as '... which is in ', '... that is at' etc. alna is a contraction of al arina; used to show a physical or prepositional relationship between two items. The word order here usually looks the opposite to what it would in English.

Dravdag alna dravu mido. grass.field LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
.RELRelative grass-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
green The grass [which is] in the meadow is green.


[top]da - because of, thanks to, according to

Ana prođna da, an rakau ariyo. 1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
-GENGenitive (case)
possessive
brother thanks-to I money-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
have-NEGNegative (polarity)
not
Thanks to my brother, I have no money.


Ševun da, ansomaam yođ enau si. government according-to police good thing-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
do-PRSPresent Tense (tense) According to the government, the police do good things.


[top]đu - around, amongst, about

đu is used to show an approximation. This can be both numerical, and physical locations.

Avi tadana noka đu đariva. 1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
shelf-GENGenitive (case)
possessive
middle around stand-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
We stood around the centre of the kitchen.


Avđei đu yu doma. spiderweb amongst COPCopula
used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate
door Amongst the spiderwebs is a door.


Nega na si nai đu tani al ariva. book NUMNumeral three zero about shelf LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
be-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
There were about thirty books on the shelf


[top]vai - or (zero-sum)

This form of 'or' requires a yes or no answer - that is, BOTH of the options are included in the question. This is different to li which also means 'or'.

Mo malvi vai šakoru kutniya tas? 2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
butter or sugar-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
buy-CONJConjunction
links two arguments or clauses together
want? Do you want to buy butter or sugar?


[top]vas / vaš - with, using, by means of (instrumental)

vas mostly shows an instrument or a means by which something was accomplished. The 'instrument' does not necessarily have to be tangible - as in the case of languages.

Both vas and vaš are the same and able to be used completely in free association with one another.

Niđalos vaš šaviya krega? nithalos INSInstrumental (case)
'with', 'using'
write-CONJConjunction
links two arguments or clauses together
do-for Can you write this in Nithalosian [for me]?


Maška vaš šaviva. pen INSInstrumental (case)
'with', 'using'
write-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
I wrote it using a pen.


Pati vas evu dapiya tas. bat INSInstrumental (case)
'with', 'using'
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
hit-CONJConjunction
links two arguments or clauses together
want I want to hit him with a bat.


[top]vi - from / since

When used with a place or giver of something (eg. "I got it from him"), vi means 'from'. When used with a time, this means 'since'.

Mo škol vi kašiva s? 2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
school from run-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
EMPEmphatic
stressed or emphasised
Did you run [here] from school?


Maekira vi taprivayo. morning since eat-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-NEGNegative (polarity)
not
I haven't eaten since [this] morning


[top]voi - only, just, even, despite

The use of voi has a slight negative connotation, whereas is without.

An Niđalos vas voi vomiša. 1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
nithalos INSInstrumental (case)
'with', 'using'
only speak-POTPotential (mood)
likely events, ability
I speak only Nithalosian [unfortunately].


Eđvuli voi kutniva. cabbage only buy-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
I just bought cabbages (nothing else).


Koa kasi voi, anu ma amvo. this-GENGenitive (case)
possessive
wind even 1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
-STATStative (case)
attribute assignment
still warm Even in this wind, I am still warm.


Note: This may have been spelled 'vo' in the past. This has since changed in order to not confuse it with the particle 'vo' meaning 'also/too'.

[top]vo / vu / lo - too, also, as well

Vo, vu, and lo all mean the same thing. As vo used to mean 'only/just' as well, this use was pronounced [vu] and sometimes also spelled to reflect this (hence vu). The spelling of the other particle was changed, and today vo is more commonly used to mean too/also, and is pronounced /vo/.

Vu is still sometimes used - particularly by older Nithalosians or in older texts - or when a text wants to sound more formal. Lo is much rarer and is only favoured in some areas of Nithalosia.

An vo eštiya tas! 1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
also go-CONJConjunction
links two arguments or clauses together
want I want to go too [with the rest of you]!


This particle can also be used in lieu of the accusative to imply there may be other things in the list. Where you want to explicitly state something like 'etc', it'd be better to use ... i anađ.

An dintaloštu skali vu vromi. 1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
electric.picture-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
watch-PRSPresent Tense (tense) also like-PRSPresent Tense (tense) I also like watching movies [amongst other things].


[top]eg / ey - to, for (dative)

eg denotes the indirect object. Both eg and ey are pronounced /e:/ in Nithalos. eg becomes ey when attached to pronouns. Sometimes the spelling ey is preferred - especially colloquially, and in Govđa state.

An krođna eg negau yomeiva. 1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
sister DATDative (case)
indirect object; beneficiary
book-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
read-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
I read the story to my sister.


An mo eg utariya tas. 1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
DATDative (case)
indirect object; beneficiary
sing-CONJConjunction
links two arguments or clauses together
want I want to sing for you.


Ev aney emvugoiva s! 3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
-DATDative (case)
indirect object; beneficiary
smile-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
EMPEmphatic
stressed or emphasised
She smiled at me!


[top]i - and (exhaustive)

i always shows a complete list.

An koa negau yomeila, i mate yomeiya tas. 1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
this-GENGenitive (case)
possessive
book-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
read-AORAorist (tense/aspect)
usually the simple past
and again read-CONJConjunction
links two arguments or clauses together
want I have read this book, and I want to read it again.


[top]li - or (optional)

This form of 'or' requires you to choose one of the two options. This is different to vai which also means 'or'.

Mo malvi li šakoru kutniya tas? 2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
butter or sugar-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
buy-CONJConjunction
links two arguments or clauses together
want Do you want to buy butter or sugar?


[top]gi - for (period of time)

An timo na ta gi koa negau yomeiva. 1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
hour NUMNumeral two for this-GENGenitive (case)
possessive
book-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
read-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
I read this book for two hours.


[top]go - with, by

go serves two separate purposes:

To show a companion (not necessarily animate) - ie. comitative case:

Mo soš go eštiva? 2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
who COMComitative (case)
'together with'
go-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
Who did you go with?


And to mark the agent of a passive statement:

Koa nega kravđi go šavava. this-GENGenitive (case)
possessive
book mother AGEAgent (role)
cause or initiator of event/action
write-PASSPassive voice (valency)
be verb-ed
-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
This book was written by Mum.


[top]mae - before, in (amount of time)

mae can be both temporal and physical 'before'. To avoid some ambiguities, sometimes al is added after mae.

Evđa mae (al) komoi asuriva. 3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
before (LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
) bear-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
appear-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
The bear appeared [physically] before/in front of them.


Evđa komo mae tukoiva. 3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
bear before arrive-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
They arrived before [/earlier than] the bear.


Ana yuda tais na 15 mae tukoiđa. 1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
-GENGenitive (case)
possessive
friend minute NUMNumeral 15 before arrive-FUTFuture (tense)
action occurring after the moment of speech
My friend will be here in 15 minutes [in the future].


[top]mea - up to, until (terminative)

Praeigi aks nari mea an ovariđayo. king TRANSLTranslative (case)
becoming
become-PRSPresent Tense (tense) until 1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
stop-FUTFuture (tense)
action occurring after the moment of speech
-NEGNegative (polarity)
not
I will not rest (cease) until I become King.


Avi škola eripaso mea untiva. 1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
school-GENGenitive (case)
possessive
entrance up.to drive-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
We drove up to the entrance of the school.


[top]na (numerative / quantifier)

na does not have a direct translation in English. It is used to assign a quantity to a noun. Often when pronounced, it is just shortened to /n/ - depending on the environment.

Evu ekva na ta ona kit. 3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
-STATStative (case)
attribute assignment
face NUMNumeral two ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.RELRelative person He is the man with two faces.


In this example, the na ties together the noun (ekva - "face") with the quantity (ta - "two"), and ekva na ta would be pronoucned ['ekfan 'ta].

[top]no - between, during, through, by

no can be used in both physical and temporal contexts.

Inu ana yaša no sumvi. dog 1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
-GENGenitive (case)
possessive
leg beween sit-PRSPresent Tense (tense) The dog is sitting between my legs.


Niđalosia alna okođ samsei no miođ kitu šinila. nithalosia LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
.RELRelative big war during many person-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
die-AORAorist (tense/aspect)
usually the simple past
During the great war in Nithalosia, many people died.


No can also be used to mean 'through' a place.

Avi samepa no arkiva. 1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
park through walk-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
We walked through the park.


In addition to 'through', no can be used to mean 'past' when with a verb of motion. This can be confusing for non-natives with the above meaning of 'through'.

Avi samepa no arkiva. 1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
park through walk-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
We walked past the park.


If you wish to specify that the subject went through the middle of the park, then you would use noka instead.

Avi samepa noka arkiva. 1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
park through walk-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
We walked through [the centre of] the park.


[top]nu - within, inside, in

Used only for closed areas, such as being specifically inside a building (rather than 'at' a place), or inside a box etc. Can also be used temporally to show something happening inside/within a timeframe.

An timo nu yorataprau tapri. 1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
time within evening.meal-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
eat-PRSPresent Tense (tense) I will eat dinner within an hour.


Inu kak nu kaksava. dog box INEInessive (case)
'inside'
hide-PASSPassive voice (valency)
be verb-ed
-pst The dog was hidden inside the box.


An kak nu ari. 1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
box INEInessive (case)
'inside'
be-PRSPresent Tense (tense) I am in a box.


[top]oe - above, on top of

oe differs from ula and al in that it is more specifically 'on top of', rather than 'at' or 'above [and beyond]'. Like mae, oe can be used in conjunction with al.

Negau tani oe (al). book-STATStative (case)
attribute assignment
shelf SUPESuperessive (case)
'on top of'
(LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
) The book is on the shelf.


[top]om - about (topic)

om is used to show the subject of discourse.

Mo amna om aney vomiya krega? 2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
opinion about 1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
-DATDative (case)
indirect object; beneficiary
say-CONJConjunction
links two arguments or clauses together
do.for Could you tell me about your opinion?


[top]ona - relational possessive

ona has no direct English translation. It is essentially a contraction of -u asina [ACC have.REL]. For example, this particle can be used to shorten:

Kvašu asina praiu serdo. glue-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
have-RELRelative boy-STATStative (case)
attribute assignment
angry The boy with/[who has] the glue is angry.


To just the following:

Kvaš ona praiu serdo. glue ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
-RELRelative boy-STATStative (case)
attribute assignment
angry The boy with/[who has] the glue is angry.


The o in ona comes from the historic accusative ó particle (which is no longer in use).

[top]or - for, to, in order to, so that (benefactive)

or is used to show a purpose or beneficiary (person who will benefit - who it is done for) of an action.

Tišau tapri or olant to eštiya tas. cheese-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
eat BENBenefactive (case)
recipient of benefit
Holland to go-CONJConjunction
links two arguments or clauses together
want I want to go to Holland to eat cheese.


Enau tadmi or ana sašvagu sašvi. thing-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
eat BENBenefactive (case)
recipient of benefit
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
-GENGenitive (case)
possessive
tool-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
use-PRSPresent Tense (tense) I use my tools for building things.


Rakau kaksi or, dagođ enau kutniya ovariya kyan. money-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
hide BENBenefactive (case)
recipient of benefit
expensive thing-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
buy-CONJConjunction
links two arguments or clauses together
stop-CONJConjunction
links two arguments or clauses together
must In order to save money, you have to stop buying expensive things.


Kodravnau ovariša or, praran to eštiya kyan. homework-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
finish-POTPotential (mood)
likely events, ability
library to go-CONJConjunction
links two arguments or clauses together
must I have to go to the library so that I can finish my homework.


[top]po (quotative)

po is used when quoting something directly and indirectly. It follows the phrase to quote, and before the second verb. When quoting indirectly, the quoted phrase must be separated by commas, with po outside of these.

An “mou aško” po vomiva. 1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
-STATStative (case)
attribute assignment
beautiful QUOQuotative
marks a direct or indirect quote
say-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
I said “you are beautiful”.


Often instead of splicing the quoted phrase, the subject of the sentence is moved to between the quoted phrase and the verb. For example, the following:

Ev, anu aško, po ami. 3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
-STATStative (case)
attribute assignment
beautiful QUOQuotative
marks a direct or indirect quote
think-PRSPresent Tense (tense) He thinks (that) I am beautiful.


Can also be said (without commas):

Anu aško po ev ami. 1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
-STATStative (case)
attribute assignment
beautiful QUOQuotative
marks a direct or indirect quote
2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
think-PRSPresent Tense (tense) He thinks (that) I am beautiful.


[top]s / se / es (emphatic particle)

This particle emphasises the point of a sentence and/or shows stronger emotion than otherwise present in the sentence.

The difference between s and se is purely down to the context and speaker's choice. Often the se is very elongated, usually to show something being displeasurable, or to show the speaker's distaste in something. The shorter s is often used more with more excitable contexts, or 'punchy'/assertive statements.

Es is preferred when the end of the sentence ends in a consonant (to make the particle more noticable). Rarely, the two are combined to make ese - but this is highly colloquial.

An mou dovli s! 1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
hate-PRSPresent Tense (tense) EMPEmphatic
stressed or emphasised
I hate you!


Anu kodu al on es! 1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
-STATStative (case)
attribute assignment
home LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
NEGNegative (polarity)
not
EMPEmphatic
stressed or emphasised
I am not home!


[top]so - when

so is used to mean 'when' an action happened. It always goes after the verb and auxilliaries that it describes.

Neka ana tišau taprila so, an sani serdava. cat 1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
-GENGenitive (case)
possessive
cheese-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
eat-AORAorist (tense/aspect)
usually the simple past
when 1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
very anger-PASSPassive voice (valency)
be verb-ed
-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
When the cat ate my cheese, I got very angry.


[top]šo - as, like (essive)

An maiđa šo šuioka yemiša. 1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
bee ESSEssive (case)
'as, similar'
fast-ADVAdverbial
e.g. English '-ly'
fly-POTPotential (mood)
likely events, ability
I can fly as fast[ly] as a bee.


Ev tegna šo utariša. 3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
angel ESSEssive (case)
'as, similar'
sing-POTPotential (mood)
likely events, ability
She can sing like an angel.


[top]štei - under, below, less than (subessive)

Otauskit keši štei sumi. house.ABEAbessive (case)
'without'
.people bridge SUBESubessive (case)
'under'
reside-PRSPresent Tense (tense) Homeless people live under the bridge.


Atlantis, marev štei kaksala, po voma. Atlantis ocean SUBESubessive (case)
'under'
hide-PASSPassive voice (valency)
be verb-ed
-AORAorist (tense/aspect)
usually the simple past
QUOQuotative
marks a direct or indirect quote
say-PASSPassive voice (valency)
be verb-ed
It is said that Atlantis is hidden below the sea.


Kit na ta štei niđalos vas vomiša. people num two less.than nithalos INSInstrumental (case)
'with', 'using'
speak-POTPotential (mood)
likely events, ability
Less than two people can speak Nithalosian.


[top]to - to (direction)

Mo aney šoyapada to untiya krega? 2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
-DATDative (case)
indirect object; beneficiary
airport to drive-CONJConjunction
links two arguments or clauses together
do.for Would you drive [for] me to the airport?


Despite looking like it is from English, to has been through a few changes to get to this point: ox [oθ] > ot [ot] > to [to].

[top]ula - over, above, more than

An đarge ula amaniva. 1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
fence over jump-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
I jumped over the fence.


Mo aney si ula arviya krega? 2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
-DATDative (case)
indirect object; beneficiary
three more.than give-CONJConjunction
links two arguments or clauses together
do.for Would you be able to give [to] me more than three?


[top]us - without (abessive)

Evđa an us eštiva s! 3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
ABEAbessive (case)
'without'
go-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
EMPEmphatic
stressed or emphasised
They went without me!


Nerti us ana kodravnau ovariva. sleep-INFInfinitive (TAM)
non-tensed verb
ABEAbessive (case)
'without'
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
-GENGenitive (case)
possessive
homework-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
finish-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
I finished my homework without going to sleep.


[top]uši / ušira - behind, after, ago

uši is just a short form of ušira

Komo samen uši kaksiva. bear tree behind hide-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
The bear hid behind the tree.


An kodravnau ovariva uši, samepa to eštiya tas. 1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
homework-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
finish-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
after park to go-CONJConjunction
links two arguments or clauses together
want I want to go to the park after I have finished my homework.


Moa yuda tais na 30 uši tukoiva. 2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
-GENGenitive (case)
possessive
friend(s) minute NUMNumeral thirty ago arrive-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
Your friends arrived 30 minutes ago.
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