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Proto-Mila Coursebook Chapter 12
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Moods Part III
This public article was written by garyberlin981, and last updated on 15 Feb 2015, 11:47.

[comments] Chapter 12 Moods Part III
There are a number of other ways to express verbs which have not yet been covered. These are expressed by affixes and are usually placed before the tense markers are placed and as such can be used in conjunction with the tenses.

uk- Repetitiveness / Excess

When placed on a noun this indicates being ‘above’. When placed on a verb prior to the tenses being placed this indicates excess or repetitiveness. If this is placed on a present tense verb then the suffix ir- does not need to be placed.
The boy is talking Lídic ba ilúmra
The boy is talking constantly/ too much Lídic ba uglúmra
The boy was talking constantly Lídic ba inuglúmra
We sang a song Ármumda inrúmla
We sang many songs Ármumda inugrúmla

If this is placed into the negative then this gives us the sense of something never happening or a habit which never occurred. It usually conveys annoyance at the action.
The boy doesn’t work Lídic ba igíhuk
The boy never works (never lifts a finger) Lídic ba ukíhuk
He stopped singing songs Rumám inrúmli (see below for –i ending)
He wouldn’t stop singing songs Rumám inugrúmliga

up- Lack

When placed on a noun this indicates being ‘under’. Placed on a verb prior to the tenses being placed, this indicates a lack of something or halfheartedness. The present tense marker is then not needed, but the other tenses must be added.
The boy is working Lídic ba igíha
The boy is working halfheartedly Lídic ba upkíha
The boy was working halfheartedly Lídic ba inupkíha
The boy was sleeping Lídic ba inhúha
The boy slept badly Lídic ba inuphúha

Exercise 1***

Exercise 2 ***

-j Inchoative / Inceptive

When placed on nouns this means movement towards. When this is placed on a verb it means to gradually drift towards an action. It should be noted that when this is placed on a verb it attracts the stress.
I am sleeping Ap ihúha
I am falling asleep Ap ihuhíj
He loves me Luláp inúba
He is falling in love with me Luláp inubíj

-r Terminative / Cessative / Essive

Placed on a noun this means movement away from. When this is placed on a verb it indicates change on status from the verb. This is called the terminative, cessative or essive.
I am sleeping Ap ihúha
I wake up Ap ihúhi
He is working Ba igíha
He stops working Ba igíhi

Exercise 3***

Exercise 4***
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