Proto-Mila Coursebook Chapter 10
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Possessive pronouns, descriptive adjectives and comparatives, adverbs
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[comments] pml Chapter 10 Possessive pronouns, descriptive adjectives and comparatives, adverbs
We have already been introduced to the object pronouns. These pronouns are used to form the possessive pronouns with the possessive or attributional particle –n added to the stem. This gives us the forms:
my/our (human) lúbin
my/our (animate) jíjbin
your (human) lúdin
your (animate) jíjdin
his/her/their (human) lúɟin
its/their (animate) jíjɟin
its/their (abstract) húhcin
its/their (inanimate within reach) títcin
its/their (inanimate within sight) cícin
its/their (inanimate absent) púpcin
The possessive form is always placed immediately before the possessed object. A sentence such as my book is there on the table is therefore ‘Lúbin píɟlic igúma ɟa’. If we do not use a pronoun but we wish to state the possessor then this too is formed with the –n added to the stem, thus the man’s book is there on the table is ‘Lúrin píɟlic igúma ɟa’.
This same form is used if an adjective is place before a noun or an adverb is placed either before or after a verb in English. In Mila it will always only come before the noun or verb it qualifies. The wet boys ran quickly thus becomes ‘Sídnin lídic láda híscin inlúha’.
If there is more than one descriptive adjective, possessive or adverb then the second and subsequent adjectives etc. add the particle –l to the already modified stem. So The wet and hungry boys ran becomes ‘Sídnin múpcinla lídic láda inlúha’.
If an adverb qualifies the adjective or another adverb this –l particle is not added and this qualifying adverb is placed before the adjective or adverb affected. The stems for big and very are the same ‘cuhpa’ so the very hungry boys ran is ‘Cúhpin múpcin lídic láda inlúha’, whereas the big hungry boys ran is ‘Cúhpin múpcinla lídic láda inlúha’.
The comparative of adjectives is formed in much the same way as the adverbial qualifier just mentioned. The qualifier for more is ‘pinda’. If we say the sentence the hungrier boys ran then this gives us ‘Píndin múpcin lídic láda inlúha’. Most is expressed by the duplicate ‘pindin pinda’ Giving ‘Píndin píndin múpcin lídic láda inlúha’ for the hungriest boys ran.
If these comparative and superlative adjectives form the predicate of the sentence then this is quite simply shown as such giving, for example, I am the hungriest boy (I, the boy, am the hungriest) ‘Lídic píndin píndin ámbic’ or I am the hungriest being simply ‘Píndin píndin ámbic’. To express ‘than’ we need to add a particle of equality ‘-s’ and form a prepositional phrase. So the boy is hungrier than the girl gives us ‘Lídic lúmdis píndin mubác’ which translates literally as something like the boy, compared to the girl, is hungrier.
If a prepositional phrase is used to describe an attribute of the subject and is not the focus of the sentence it needs to form a subclause style element. Subclauses will be covered in more depth later, but for now it is enough to know that it behaves like an adjective. The prepositional affixes are added first and only finally will the adjectival suffix be added. If we wish to say then the view from the bridge was beautiful ‘súglina cíɟlic in culáp’