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Numi syntax samples
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This public article was written by Elinnea, and last updated on 30 Jan 2017, 18:51.

[comments] Previously, I worked on translating the Fiziwig set of conlang syntax test sentences into my other language Cuuyamu. It was a fun exercise and so I'd like to try it for Numi as well. The two languages are structurally very similar in some ways, but quite different in others, so it should be interesting to see what they make of the same translation challenges.

  1. The sun shines.
    ゐのお まりぽり。
    wi-nō
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -glow
    mari-pori
    DEFDefinite
    "the"
    -sun.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
  2. The sun is shining.
    ゐのおわ まりぽり。
    wi-nō-wa
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -glow-PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
    mari-pori
    DEFDefinite
    "the"
    -sun.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
  3. The sun shone.
    ゐのおじ まりぽり。
    wi-nō-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -glow-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    mari-pori
    DEFDefinite
    "the"
    -sun.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
  4. The sun will shine.
    ゐのおり まりぽり。
    wi-nō-ri
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -glow-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    mari-pori
    DEFDefinite
    "the"
    -sun.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
  5. The sun has been shining.
    ゐのおらもわ まりぽり。
    wi-nō-ramo-wa
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -glow-until-PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
    mari-pori
    DEFDefinite
    "the"
    -sun.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
  6. The sun is shining again.
    ゐのおわ じぇん まりぽり。
    wi-nō-wa
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -glow-PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
    jen
    again
    mari-pori
    DEFDefinite
    "the"
    -sun.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument

    ゐほじぇに ふのお うぽり。
    wi-hojen-i
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -return-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    hu-nō
    POSSPossessive (case)
    = GEN
    .3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    -glow.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    u-pori
    GENGenitive (case)
    possessive
    -sun
  7. The sun will shine tomorrow.
    ゐのおろじったり まりぽり。
    wi-nō-rojitta-ri
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -glow-tomorrow-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    mari-pori
    DEFDefinite
    "the"
    -sun.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
  8. The sun shines brightly.
    ゐのおり おゐんぐ まりぽり。
    wi-nō-ri
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -glow-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    owingu
    brightly
    mari-pori
    DEFDefinite
    "the"
    -sun.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
  9. The bright sun shines.
    ゐのおり まりぽり ゐんぐ。
    wi-nō-ri
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -glow-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    mari-pori
    DEFDefinite
    "the"
    -sun.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    wingu
    bright
  10. The sun is rising now.
    ゐなえげのめわ まりぽり。
    wi-nae-genome-wa
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -rise-now-PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
    mari-pori
    DEFDefinite
    "the"
    -sun.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
  11. All the people shouted.
    ゐんづぎじ せなあさ かるじゃに。
    wi-n-dzugi-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -shout-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    sena-asa
    PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -person.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    karujani
    every
  12. Some of the people shouted.
    ゐんづぎじ まりなあさ じゃに。
    wi-n-dzugi-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -shout-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    marina-asa
    DEFDefinite
    "the"
    .PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -person.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    jani
    part
  13. Many of the people shouted twice.
    がん ゐんづぎじ まりなあさ ぼじゃに。
    gan
    two
    wi-n-dzugi-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -shout-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    marina-asa
    DEFDefinite
    "the"
    .PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -person.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    bojani
    many
  14. Happy people often shout.
    ゐんづぎわ ちょぽ せなあさ ししゃ。
    wi-n-dzugi-wa
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -shout-PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
    chopo
    often
    sena-asa
    PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -person.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    shisha
    happy
  15. The kitten jumped up.
    ゐずうらぜじ りっな。
    wi-zū-raze-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -jump-up-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    rinna
    kitten.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
  16. The kitten jumped onto the table.
    ゐずうちょりおまじ りっな。
    wi-zū-cho-rioma-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -jump-on-table-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    rinna
    kitten.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
  17. My little kitten walked away.
    ゐおくうてやじ ぬちりっな。
    wi-okū-teya-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -walk-away-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    nu-chi-rinna
    my-DIMDiminutive
    a smaller, lesser, weaker etc. version
    -kitten.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
  18. It's raining.
    そゑに。
    sowen-i
    rain-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
  19. The rain came down.
    ゐうらごじ まりそゑん。
    wi-u-rago-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -go-down-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    mari-sowen
    DEFDefinite
    "the"
    -rain.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
  20. The kitten is playing in the rain.
    ゐさんげにこそゑんわ まりりっな。
    wi-sange-niko-sowen-wa
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -play-among-rain-PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
    mari-rinna
    DEFDefinite
    "the"
    -kitten
  21. The rain has stopped.
    そゑんだん。
    sowen-dan
    rain-CESCessative (aspect)
    exiting/ending a state
  22. Soon the rain will stop.
    そゑんゐぼだん。
    sowen-wibo-dan
    rain-soon-CESCessative (aspect)
    exiting/ending a state
  23. I hope the rain stops soon.
    のりいわ よえん そゑんゐぼだん。
    no-rii-wa
    1First person (person)
    speaker, signer, etc; I
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -want-PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
    yoen
    about
    sowen-wibo-dan
    rain-soon-CESCessative (aspect)
    exiting/ending a state
  24. Once wild animals lived here.
    ゐゆびりうどっさわ せなやへむ にぐか。
    wi-yubi-riu-dossa-wa
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -live-here-before-PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
    sena-yahemu
    PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -creature.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    niguka
    wild
  25. Slowly she looked around.
    ゐひんじ おゑど。
    wi-hin-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -look-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    o-wedo
    ADVAdverbial
    e.g. English '-ly'
    -slow
  26. Go away!
    うてやり!
    u-teya-ri
    go-away-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
  27. Let's go!
    のんうり!
    no-n-u-ri
    1First person (person)
    speaker, signer, etc; I
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -go-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
  28. You should go.
    るうり きね。
    ru-u-ri
    2Second person (person)
    addressee (you)
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -go-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    kine
    should
  29. I will be happy to go.
    のうり おししゃ。
    no-u-ri
    1First person (person)
    speaker, signer, etc; I
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -go-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    oshisha
    happily
  30. He will arrive soon.
    ゐえんぜんゐぼり。
    wi-enzen-wibo-ri
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -arrive-soon-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
  31. The baby's ball has rolled away.
    ゐぱよおてやじ ふむぞお うがみ。
    wi-payō-teya-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -roll-away-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    hu-muzō
    POSSPossessive (case)
    = GEN
    .3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    -ball.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    u-gami
    GENGenitive (case)
    possessive
    -baby
  32. The two boys are working together.
    ゐのはくじゃごわ がん めき。
    wi-n-ohaku-jago-wa
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -together-work-PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
    gan
    two
    meki
    boy.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
  33. This mist will probably clear away.
    ゐぽっぬだんゐぽで らえし ふてごげ。
    wi-ponnudan-wipo-de
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -clear-soon-INCHInchoative (aspect)
    'beginning, becoming'
    raeshi
    probably
    hutego-ge
    mist.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -this
  34. Lovely flowers are growing everywhere.
    ゐんぼんせがえんわ あんわ なり。
    wi-n-bonse-gaen-wa
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -sprout-everywhere-PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
    anwa
    flower
    nari
    beautiful
  35. We should eat more slowly.
    のんごぜえり きね へろおゑど。
    no-n-gozē-ri
    1First person (person)
    speaker, signer, etc; I
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -eat-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    kine
    should
    hero-o-wedo
    more-ADVAdverbial
    e.g. English '-ly'
    -slow
  36. You have come too soon.
    るうるじ おじょばご。
    ru-uru-ji
    2Second person (person)
    addressee (you)
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -come-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    o-joba-go
    ADVAdverbial
    e.g. English '-ly'
    -early-too
  37. You must write more neatly.
    るじょづみり すり へろおとじゃい。
    ru-jodzumi-ri
    2Second person (person)
    addressee (you)
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -write-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    suri
    must
    hero-o-otojai
    more-ADVAdverbial
    e.g. English '-ly'
    -neat
  38. Directly opposite stands a wonderful palace.
    えり こでろが がえ いらるい。
    e-ri
    be-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    koderoga
    palace.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    gae
    wonderful
    ira-riu
    across_from-here
  39. Henry's dog is lost.
    きぶいんわ ふえぜし うへぬり。
    ki-buin-wa
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    -lose-PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
    hu-eze-shi
    POSSPossessive (case)
    = GEN
    .3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    -dog-ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    u-henuri
    GENGenitive (case)
    possessive
    -Henry
  40. My cat is black.
    ゐでえに ぬひんあ。
    wi-dēn-i
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -black-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    nu-hinna
    my-cat.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
  41. The little girl's doll is broken.
    ゐかちゃり ふさんがさ うちまひ。
    wi-kacha-ri
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -broken-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    hu-sangasa
    her-doll.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    u-chi-mahi
    GENGenitive (case)
    possessive
    -DIMDiminutive
    a smaller, lesser, weaker etc. version
    -girl
  42. I usually sleep soundly.
    のにんがわ ちょぼ いっぼん。
    no-ninga-wa
    1First person (person)
    speaker, signer, etc; I
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -sleep-PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
    chobo
    often
    ibbon
    thoroughly
  43. The children ran after Jack.
    ゐんふうじ あけじゃっく せなみや。
    wi-n-hū-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -run_go-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    ake-jakku
    following-Jack
    sena-miya
    PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -child.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
  44. I can play after school.
    のさんげどぶにしぇに でい。
    no-sange-dobu-nishen-i
    1First person (person)
    speaker, signer, etc; I
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -play-after-school-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    dei
    ABILAbilitative (mood)
    expresses ability
  45. We went to the village for a visit.
    のねかうらもゆぼぺじ。
    no-n-ekau-ramo-yubope-ji
    1First person (person)
    speaker, signer, etc; I
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -visit_go-to-village-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
  46. We arrived at the river.
    のねんぜんよわいじ。
    no-n-enzen-yowai-ji
    1First person (person)
    speaker, signer, etc; I
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -arrive-river-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
  47. I have been waiting for you.
    にあそべらもわ。
    ni-a-sobe-ramo-wa
    1First person (person)
    speaker, signer, etc; I
    .ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    -2Second person (person)
    addressee (you)
    .ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    -wait-until-PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
  48. The campers sat around the fire.
    やん せななっしょさ けもんご ちゅまおほやもち。
    yan
    be_at.3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    sena-nasshosa
    PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -camper.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    kemongo
    seated
    chumao-hoyamochi
    encircling-campfire
  49. A little girl with a kitten sat near me.
    ゐもんごじ しょけ ちまひ くりっな。
    wi-mongo-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -sit-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    shoke
    nearby
    chi-mahi
    DIMDiminutive
    a smaller, lesser, weaker etc. version
    -girl.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    ku-rinna
    with-kitten
  50. The child waited at the door for her father.
    きみそべろじょづみろどっさわ みやし ふえぶめお。
    ki-mi-sobe-rojo-dzumiro-dossa-wa
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    -3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    -wait-next_to-door-before-PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
    miya-shi
    child-ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    hu-ebu-meo
    her-father-ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
  51. Yesterday the oldest girl in the village lost her kitten.
    ゐりっなぶいぬろじょったじ まひ はりよだめ ちいゆぼぺ。
    wi-rinna-buin-rojotta-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -kitten-lose-yesterday-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    mahi
    girl.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    hari-yodame
    most-old
    chii-yubope
    from-village
  52. Were you born in this village?
    ゐなじ しゅて しゅんち みざゆぼぺげ?
    wi-na-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -happen-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    shute
    QInterrogative
    question
    shu-nchi
    your-birth.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    miza-yubope-ge
    within-village-this
  53. Can your brother dance well?
    ゐやきり しゅて しゃわんしょん しゅゑいこ?
    wi-yaki-ri
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -good_at-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    shute
    QInterrogative
    question
    shawan-shon
    dance-GERGerund
    verbal noun
    shu-weiko
    your-brother.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
  54. Did the man leave?
    ゐうてやじ しゅて まりぺんじ?
    wi-u-teya-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -go-away-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    shute
    QInterrogative
    question
    mari-penji
    DEFDefinite
    "the"
    -man.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
  55. Is your sister coming for you?
    ゐうるわ しゅて どさしゃ しゅええらん?
    wi-uru-wa
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -come-PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
    shute
    QInterrogative
    question
    dosa-sha
    for-you
    shu-ēran
    your-sister.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
  56. Can you come tomorrow?
    るうるろじったり でいしゅて?
    ru-uru-rojitta-ri
    2Second person (person)
    addressee (you)
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -come-tomorrow-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    dei-shute
    ABILAbilitative (mood)
    expresses ability
    -QInterrogative
    question
  57. Have the neighbors gone away for the winter?
    ゐぬてやじ しゅて せなろじゃさ んざちゅに?
    wi-n-u-teya-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -go-away-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    shute
    QInterrogative
    question
    sena-rojasa
    PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -neighbor
    nza-chuni
    for-winter
  58. Does the robin sing in the rain?
    ゐやみ しゅて ぜろん にこそゑん?
    wi-yami
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -sing
    shute
    QInterrogative
    question
    zeron
    robin.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    niko-sowen
    among-rain
  59. Are you going with us to the concert?
    るそへごれうり しゅて くらあん?
    ru-sohegore-u-ri
    2Second person (person)
    addressee (you)
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -concert-go-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    shute
    QInterrogative
    question
    ku-rān
    with-us
  60. Have you ever travelled in the jungle?
    るわんどみざはをおむひくどさじ しゅて?
    ru-wando-miza-hawōmu-hikudosa-ji
    2Second person (person)
    addressee (you)
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -travel-within-jungle-once_before-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    shute
    QInterrogative
    question
  61. We sailed down the river for several miles.
    のっなあよおあけよわいじ てあう んざれつ ゆだゐ。
    no-n-nāyō-ake-yowai-ji
    1First person (person)
    speaker, signer, etc; I
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -sail_go-following-river-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    teau
    downstream
    nza-retsu
    for-several
    yudawi
    kilometer
  62. Everybody knows about hunting.
    のんだぷまよんづいわ せなあさ かるじゃに。
    no-n-dapumayon-dzui-wa
    1First person (person)
    speaker, signer, etc; I
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -hunting-know-PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
    sena-asa
    PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -person
    karujani
    every

    (Assuming this includes the speaker as well.)
  63. On a Sunny morning after the solstice we started for the mountains.
    りめ ゐのお ぽり びいっめじょば どぶぜつやど、のぬらすなひどっさで。
    rime
    when.IPFVImperfective (aspect)
    'interrupted or incomplete'
    wi-nō
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -glow
    pori
    sun.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    biin-mejoba
    during-morning
    dobu-zetsuyado
    after-solstice
    no-n-u-ra-sunahi-dossa-de
    1First person (person)
    speaker, signer, etc; I
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -go-towards-mountain-before-INCHInchoative (aspect)
    'beginning, becoming'
  64. Tom laughed at the monkey's tricks.
    ゐぐちょおじ たあむ らふちゃろ うまりぎんぐ。
    wi-guchō-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -laugh-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    tāmu
    Tom.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    ra-hu-charo
    towards-POSSPossessive (case)
    = GEN
    .3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    -antics
    u-mari-gingu
    GENGenitive (case)
    possessive
    -DEFDefinite
    "the"
    -monkey
  65. An old man with a walking stick stood beside the fence.
    ゐきそろじょどっさわ ぺんじ よだめ くざいじゅいん。
    wi-kiso-rojo-dossa-wa
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -stand-next_to-fence-before-PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
    penji
    man.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    yodame
    old
    ku-zaijuin
    with-walking_stick
  66. The squirrel's nest was hidden by drooping boughs.
    ゐせごふじ ふいいば うびこく みならごしょん うせなめあ。
    wi-se-gohu-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -be.accident-conceal-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    hu-iiba
    POSSPossessive (case)
    = GEN
    .3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    -nest.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    u-bikoku
    GENGenitive (case)
    possessive
    -squirrel
    mi-narago-shon
    by-droop-GERGerund
    verbal noun
    u-sena-mea
    GENGenitive (case)
    possessive
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -arm
  67. The little seeds waited patiently under the snow for the warm spring sun.
    きっみはらぼらそべひごしゃあどっさわ まりいえくちし よぺし ぽりめお はあを ちいあるん。
    ki-n-mi-hara-bora-sobe-higo-shā-dossa-wa
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    -patience-INSTRInstrumental (case)
    'with' 'using'
    -wait-under-snow-before-PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
    mari-iekuchi-shi
    DEFDefinite
    "the"
    -seed-ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    yope-shi
    small-ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    pori-meo
    sun-ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    hāwo
    warm
    chii-arun
    from-spring
  68. Many little girls with wreaths of flowers on their heads danced around the bonfire.
    ゐんしゃわんちゅまおほやなしょじ せなちまひ ぼじゃに ま ゐんざりたんわれくちょりが。
    wi-n-shawan-chumao-hoyanasho-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -dance-encircling-bonfire-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    sena-chi-mahi
    PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -DIMDiminutive
    a smaller, lesser, weaker etc. version
    -girl.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    bojani
    many
    ma
    that.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    wi-n-zaritanwa-reku-cho-riga
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -flower_crown-wear-on-head
  69. The cover of the basket fell to the floor.
    ゐじがらもひちゃごじ ふごふちょ うおっきえ。
    wi-jiga-ramo-hichago-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -fall-to-floor-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    hu-gohucho
    POSSPossessive (case)
    = GEN
    .3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    -lid.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    u-okkie
    GENGenitive (case)
    possessive
    -basket
  70. The first boy in the line stopped at the entrance.
    ゐうふろのらしぇをどっさだん めき ふひくま うゆそべ。
    wi-uhuro-nora-shewo-dossa-dan
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -follow_path-in_front_of-entrance-before-CESCessative (aspect)
    exiting/ending a state
    meki
    boy.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    hu-hikuma
    POSSPossessive (case)
    = GEN
    .3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    -first
    u-yusobe
    GENGenitive (case)
    possessive
    -queue
  71. On the top of the hill in a little hut lived a wise old woman.
    えどっさわ けしょ よだめ いむわ につよけ よぺ ちょまりすなえ。
    e-dossa-wa
    be-before-PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
    kesho
    woman.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    yodame
    old
    imuwa
    wise
    nitsu-yoke
    in-hut
    yope
    small
    cho-mari-sunae
    on-DEFDefinite
    "the"
    -hill
  72. During our residence in the country we often walked in the pastures.
    りめ のんゆびぞわき ののくややむのどっさわ ちょぽ。
    rime
    when.IPFVImperfective (aspect)
    'interrupted or incomplete'
    no-n-yubi-zowaki
    1First person (person)
    speaker, signer, etc; I
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -live-country
    no-n-okuya-yamuno-dossa-wa
    1First person (person)
    speaker, signer, etc; I
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -walk-pasture-before-PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
    chopo
    often
  73. When will your guests from the city arrive?
    げんしゅ めえ ゐねんぜに しゅせなえかうさ ちいつない?
    genshu
    which

    time
    wi-n-enzen-i
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -arrive-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    shu-sena-ekausa
    your-PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -visitor.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    chii-tsunai
    from-city
  74. Near the mouth of the river, its course turns sharply towards the East.
    しょけふしぇいん うおおき ゐぜつらんごわ げじ ふずふろ うよわい。
    shoke-hu-shein
    near-POSSPossessive (case)
    = GEN
    .3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    -mouth
    u-ōki
    GENGenitive (case)
    possessive
    -body_of_water
    wi-zetsu-ra-ngo-wa
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -turn-towards-east-PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
    geji
    suddenly
    hu-zuhuro
    POSSPossessive (case)
    = GEN
    .3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    -path.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    u-yowai
    GENGenitive (case)
    possessive
    -river
  75. Between the two lofty mountains lay a fertile valley.
    ゐきいじ ろおし えこわ いくがん すなひ いいた。
    wi-kii-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -wide-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    rōshi
    valley.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    ekowa
    fertile
    iku-gan
    between-two
    sunahi
    mountain
    iita
    tall
  76. Among the wheat grew tall red poppies.
    にこせなぞえそ ゐんぼんせじ ごじぇい ざろん いいた。
    niko-sena-zoeso
    among-PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -wheat
    wi-n-bonse-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -sprout-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    gojei
    poppy.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    zaron
    red
    iita
    tall
  77. The strong roots of the oak trees were torn from the ground.
    ゐねちゅにとちいぞわじ ふごお どおぶ うせなねんご。
    wi-n-e-chunito-chii-zowa-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -be-pull_out-from-earth-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    hu-gō
    POSSPossessive (case)
    = GEN
    .3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    -root.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    dōbu
    strong
    u-sena-nengo
    GENGenitive (case)
    possessive
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -oak
  78. The sun looked down through the branches upon the children at play.
    きみごあしらごじ ねずいん せなみやめお まさんげ。
    ki-mi-goashi-rago-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    -3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    -watch-downwards-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    ne-zuin
    through-branch
    sena-miya-meo
    PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -child-ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    ma-sange
    PCPParticiple
    adjectival form of a verb
    -play
  79. The west wind blew across my face like a friendly caress.
    ゐぷにいらぬいせじ ゑしゃ ちやのん えんふごべて うみっか。
    wi-puni-ira-nu-ise-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -blow-across-my-face-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    wesha
    wind.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    chiyanon
    western
    en-hu-gobete
    as-POSSPossessive (case)
    = GEN
    .3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    -caress
    u-mikka
    GENGenitive (case)
    possessive
    -friend
  80. The spool of thread rolled across the floor.
    ゐぱよおいらひちゃごじ いんと てぼん。
    wi-payō-ira-hichago-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -roll-across-floor-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    into
    round.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    tebon
    thread
  81. A box of growing plants stood in the window.
    どっさ やん ちょらいつもんご ぜけ まし きみみぜって いえくめお まぼんせ。
    dossa
    before
    yan
    be_at.3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    cho-raitsumongo
    on-window_sill
    zeke
    box.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    ma-shi
    that-ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    ki-mi-mizette
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    -3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    -contain
    ieku-meo
    plant-ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    ma-bonse
    PTCPParticiple
    adjectival form of a verb
    -sprout
  82. I am very happy.
    のぼししゃわ。
    no-bo-shisha-wa
    1First person (person)
    speaker, signer, etc; I
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -AUGAugmentative
    a bigger, greater, stronger etc. version
    -happy-PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
  83. These oranges are juicy.
    ゐんがいちみぞり しゃきげ。
    wi-n-gaichi-mizo-ri
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -juice-filled-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    shaki-ge
    orange.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -this
  84. Sea water is salty.
    ゐとめん おおじゅ。
    wi-tomen
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -salty
    ōju
    sea_water.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
  85. The streets are full of people.
    ゐなさみぞわ ずふぬ。
    wi-n-asa-mizo-wa
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -person-filled-PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
    zuhunu
    street.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
  86. Sugar tastes sweet.
    ゐえげら たり りいな。
    wi-e-gera
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -be-taste
    tari
    sugar.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    riina
    sweet
  87. The fire feels hot.
    ゐえあごり まりほや わひ。
    wi-e-ago-ri
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -be-feel_external-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    mari-hoya
    DEFDefinite
    "the"
    -fire.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    wahi
    hot
  88. The little girl seemed lonely.
    ゐえるうめじ ちまひ えなさぎろ。
    wi-e-rūme-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -be-feel_emotion-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    chi-mahi
    DIMDiminutive
    a smaller, lesser, weaker etc. version
    -girl.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    en-asagiro
    as-lonely
  89. The little boy's father had once been a sailor.
    ゐなあよさわ ひく どっさ ふえぶ うちめき。
    wi-nāyo-sa-wa
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -sail-er-PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
    hiku
    one
    dossa
    before
    hu-ebu
    POSSPossessive (case)
    = GEN
    .3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    -father.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    u-chi-meki
    GENGenitive (case)
    possessive
    -DIMDiminutive
    a smaller, lesser, weaker etc. version
    -boy
  90. I have lost my blanket.
    にみぶいんじ ぬらづこめお。
    ni-mi-buin-ji
    1First person (person)
    speaker, signer, etc; I
    .ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    -3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    -lose-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    nu-radzuko-meo
    my-blanket-ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
  91. A robin has built his nest in the apple tree.
    ゐいばとゑすじ ぜろん ちょいなんじろ。
    wi-iiba-towesu-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -nest-make-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    zeron
    robin.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    cho-inanjiro
    on-apple_tree
  92. At noon we ate our lunch by the roadside.
    のっぬげごぜえろじょずふかんやをじ。
    no-n-nuge-gozē-rojo-zuhukan-yawo-ji
    1First person (person)
    speaker, signer, etc; I
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -lunch-eat-next_to-road-noon-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
  93. Mr. Jones made a knife for his little boy.
    きみとゑすじ じょんずし んじ ばえづめお どさふちめき。
    ki-mi-towesu-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    -3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    -make-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    jonzu-shi
    Jones-ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    nji
    Mister
    baedzu-meo
    knife-ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    dosa-hu-chi-meki
    for-his-DIMDiminutive
    a smaller, lesser, weaker etc. version
    -boy
  94. Their voices sound very happy.
    ゐねやそり ふしめ ぼししゃ。
    wi-n-e-yaso-ri
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -be-hear-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    hu-shime
    POSSPossessive (case)
    = GEN
    .3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    -voice.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    bo-shisha
    AUGAugmentative
    a bigger, greater, stronger etc. version
    -happy
  95. Is today Monday?
    やん しゅて ぺった やどぬ?
    yan
    be_at.3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    shute
    QInterrogative
    question
    petta
    today.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    yadonu
    Monday
  96. Have all the leaves fallen from the tree?
    ゐんじがちいなんじ しゅて かど けぽ かる?
    wi-n-jiga-chii-inan-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -fall-from-tree-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    shute
    QInterrogative
    question
    kado
    already
    kepo
    leaf.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    karu
    all
  97. Will you be ready on time?
    るぶけり しゅて ゐぽ もじゃぎ?
    ru-buke-ri
    2Second person (person)
    addressee (you)
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -ready-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    shute
    QInterrogative
    question
    wipo
    soon
    mojagi
    enough
  98. Will you send this message for me?
    すみらあどささらうり しゅて じょらうめおげ?
    su-mi-rā-dosa-sarau-ri
    2Second person (person)
    addressee (you)
    .ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    -3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    -me-for-send-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    shute
    QInterrogative
    question
    jorau-meo-ge
    message-ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    -this
  99. Are you waiting for me?
    すもそべわ しゅて?
    su-mo-sobe-wa
    2Second person (person)
    addressee (you)
    .ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    -1First person (person)
    speaker, signer, etc; I
    .ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    -wait-PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
    shute
    QInterrogative
    question
  100. Is this the first kitten of the litter?
    ゐんちでぞり しゅて りっなげ?
    wi-nchidezo-ri
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -firstborn-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    shute
    QInterrogative
    question
    rinna-ge
    kitten.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -this

    ゐでぞじ しゅて ふんち うりっなげ?
    wi-dezo-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -first-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    shute
    QInterrogative
    question
    hu-nchi
    POSSPossessive (case)
    = GEN
    .3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    -birth.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    u-rinna-ge
    GENGenitive (case)
    possessive
    -kitten-this
  101. Are these shoes too big for you?
    きなどんばごり しゅて ぎいみしげ?
    ki-n-a-donba-go-ri
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -2Second person (person)
    addressee (you)
    .ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    -large-excess-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    shute
    QInterrogative
    question
    giimi-shi-ge
    shoe-ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    -this
  102. How wide is the River?
    あぶしゅ ゐきいり まりよわい?
    abushu
    how_much
    wi-kii-ri
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -wide-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    mari-yowai
    DEFDefinite
    "the"
    -river.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
  103. Listen.
    そへいで。
    sohei-de
    listen-INCHInchoative (aspect)
    'beginning, becoming'
  104. Sit here by me.
    もんごりうり ろじょらあ。
    mongo-riu-ri
    sit-here-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    rojo-rā
    next_to-me
  105. Keep this secret until tomorrow.
    およごふらもろじったで。
    oyo-gohu-ramo-rojitta-de
    ANTIPAntipassive voice (valency)
    valency is decreased by one
    -conceal-until-tomorrow-INCHInchoative (aspect)
    'beginning, becoming'
  106. Come with us.
    らあんくうり。
    rān-ku-u-ri
    we-with-go-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
  107. Bring your friends with you.
    およそしゃり みしゅせなみっか。
    oyo-sosha-ri
    ANTIPAntipassive voice (valency)
    valency is decreased by one
    -bring-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    mi-shu-sena-mikka
    of-your-PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -friend
  108. Be careful.
    およえじり。
    ANTIP-watch_out-NPST
  109. Have some tea.
    かえ ゆし。
    kae
    here_is
    yushi
    tea.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
  110. Pip and his dog were great friends.
    きんぼみっかどっさわ ぴぷし ふえぜし。
    ki-n-bo-mikka-dossa-wa
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -AUGAugmentative
    a bigger, greater, stronger etc. version
    -friend-before-PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
    pipu-shi
    Pip-ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    hu-eze-shi
    POSSPossessive (case)
    = GEN
    .3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    -dog-ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
  111. John and Elizabeth are brother and sister.
    きんたおり じゃあんし えりざべすし。
    ki-n-tao-ri
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -sibling-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    jān-shi
    John-ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    erizabesu-shi
    Elizabeth-ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
  112. You and I will go together.
    ののはくうり しゃ よ らあ。
    no-n-ohakū-ri
    1First person (person)
    speaker, signer, etc; I
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -go_together-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    sha
    you.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    yo
    and

    IInterjection (POS).ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, IInterjection (POS)NTR argument
  113. They opened all the doors and windows.
    きっみみろじ づみろめお らいつめお かるじゃに。
    ki-n-mi-miro-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    -open-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    dzumiro-meo
    door-ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    raitsu-meo
    window-ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    karujani
    every
  114. He is small, but strong.
    ゐよぺり こどおぶ。
    wi-yope-ri
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -small-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    ko-dōbu
    while.SSSame subject (switch-reference)
    same subject used between clauses
    -strong
  115. Is this tree an oak or a maple?
    ゐねんごり しゅて らお ゐありり いなんげ?
    wi-nengo-ri
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -oak-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    shute
    QInterrogative
    question
    rao
    or
    wi-ari-ri
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -maple-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    inan-ge
    tree.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -this
  116. Does the sky look blue or gray?
    ゐえあしわ しゅて ええん えにん らお えんこお?
    wi-e-ashi-wa
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -be-see-PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
    shute
    QInterrogative
    question
    ēn
    sky.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    en-in
    as-blue
    rao
    or
    en-kō
    as-grey
  117. Come with your father or mother.
    うるり くしゅえぶ らお しゅまろ。
    uru-ri
    come-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    ku-shu-ebu
    with-your-father
    rao
    or
    shu-maro
    your-mother
  118. I am tired, but very happy.
    のやあげわ さち のぼししゃわ。
    no-yāge-wa
    1First person (person)
    speaker, signer, etc; I
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -tired-PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
    sachi
    but
    no-bo-shisha-wa
    1First person (person)
    speaker, signer, etc; I
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -AUGAugmentative
    a bigger, greater, stronger etc. version
    -happy-PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
  119. He played a tune on his wonderful flute.
    ゐがあのをざじ ぼらふぴま がえ。
    wi-gāno-woza-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -song-play-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    bora-hu-pima
    INSTRInstrumental (case)
    'with' 'using'
    -his-flute
    gae
    wonderful
  120. Toward the end of August the days grow much shorter.
    ゐんやたぬっかばきわ やどお らふねい うざれごじゃきい。
    wi-n-yatan-kka-baki-wa
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -short-intensifier-become-PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
    yadō
    day.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    ra-hu-nei
    towards-POSSPossessive (case)
    = GEN
    .3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    -end
    u-zaregojakii
    GENGenitive (case)
    possessive
    -August
  121. A company of soldiers marched over the hill and across the meadow.
    ゐまだゐうじ いらすなえ いらじゃきじょ はくん にぜき。
    wi-madawiu-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -march-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    ira-sunae
    across-hill
    ira-jakijo
    across-meadow
    hakun
    flock.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    nizeki
    soldier
  122. The first part of the story is very interesting.
    ゐぼねざはに をお じゃに でぞ。
    wi-bo-nezahan-i
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -AUGAugmentative
    a bigger, greater, stronger etc. version
    -interesting-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future

    story.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    jani
    part
    dezo
    first
  123. The crow dropped some pebbles into the pitcher and raised the water to the brim.
    きみゑってとろなゑんぜじ かうし せなちこっとめお そおさらずらもらえ。
    ki-mi-wette-toro-nawenze-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    -3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    -let_go-into-pitcher-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    kau-shi
    crow-ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    sena-chi-kotto-meo
    PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -DIMDiminutive
    a smaller, lesser, weaker etc. version
    -stone-ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    so-ō-sarazu-ramo-rae
    then.SSSame subject (switch-reference)
    same subject used between clauses
    -water-raise-until-top
  124. The baby clapped her hands and laughed in glee.
    ゐてにくじ まりがみ こぐちょお ちいがえ。
    wi-teniku-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -clap-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    mari-gami
    DEFDefinite
    "the"
    -baby.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    ko-guchō
    while.SSSame subject (switch-reference)
    same subject used between clauses
    -laugh
    chii-gae
    from-joy
  125. Stop your game and be quiet.
    うえぞさんげだん よ にどで。
    uezo-sange-dan
    game-play-CESCessative (aspect)
    exiting/ending a state
    yo
    and
    nido-de
    quiet-INCHInchoative (aspect)
    'beginning, becoming'
  126. The sound of the drums grew louder and louder.
    きみばきむいわ すかじし ちょくた だぎめお よ へろだぎめお。
    ki-mi-baki-mui-wa
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    -3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    -become-then-PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
    sukaji-shi
    sound-ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    chokuta
    drum
    dagi-meo
    loud-ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    yo
    and
    hero-dagi-meo
    more-loud-ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
  127. Do you like summer or winter better?
    げんしゅめお すみへろおっみわ ちいわあろ らお ちゅに?
    genshu-meo
    which-ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    su-mi-hero-ommi-wa
    2Second person (person)
    addressee (you)
    .ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    -3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    -more-like-PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
    chii-wāro
    from-summer
    rao
    or
    chuni
    winter
  128. That boy will have a wonderful trip.
    きみひづおり めきしじゃ えわっめお がえ。
    ki-mi-hidzuo-ri
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    -3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    -experience-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    meki-shi-ja
    boy-ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    -that
    ewan-meo
    journey-ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    gae
    wonderful
  129. They popped corn, and then sat around the fire and ate it.
    ゐんきぴやあれんじ そもんごちゅまおほやもち そみごぜえ。
    wi-n-kipi-yāren-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -popcorn-cook-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    so-mongo-chumao-hoyamochi
    then.SSSame subject (switch-reference)
    same subject used between clauses
    -sit-encircling-campfire
    so-mi-gozē
    then.SSSame subject (switch-reference)
    same subject used between clauses
    -3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    -eat
  130. They won the first two games, but lost the last one.
    きっみうえぞあいたじ がっめお でぞ、さち ゐんぴとめくとじ。
    ki-n-mi-uezo-aita-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    -game-win-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    gan-meo
    two-ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    dezo
    first
    sachi
    but
    wi-n-pitome-kuto-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -third-lose-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
  131. Take this note, carry it to your mother; and wait for an answer.
    じょらうほくり、およえってり らもしゅまろ、およそべで みえし。
    jorau-hoku-ri,
    message-take-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    oyo-ette-ri
    ANTIPAntipassive voice (valency)
    valency is decreased by one
    -hold-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    ramo-shu-maro,
    to-your-mother
    oyo-sobe-de
    ANTIPAntipassive voice (valency)
    valency is decreased by one
    -wait-INCHInchoative (aspect)
    'beginning, becoming'
    mi-eshi
    of-answer
  132. I awoke early, dressed hastily, and went down to breakfast.
    のまあぜじ おじょば そうもお おきちゃろ そおよじゃゐらご らもぞげ。
    no-māze-ji
    1First person (person)
    speaker, signer, etc; I
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -wake_up-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    o-joba
    ADVAdverbial
    e.g. English '-ly'
    -early
    so-umō
    then.SSSame subject (switch-reference)
    same subject used between clauses
    -dress
    o-kicharao
    ADVAdverbial
    e.g. English '-ly'
    -hasty
    so-oyo-jawi-rago
    then.SSSame subject (switch-reference)
    same subject used between clauses
    -ANTIPAntipassive voice (valency)
    valency is decreased by one
    -step-down
    ramo-zoge
    to-breakfast
  133. Aha! I have caught you!
    やほ!にあのってじ!
    yaho!
    aha!
    ni-a-notte-ji
    1First person (person)
    speaker, signer, etc; I
    .ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    -2Second person (person)
    addressee (you)
    .ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    -grab-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
  134. This string is too short!
    ゐやたんごり つてんげ!
    wi-yatan-go-ri
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -short-excess-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    tsuten-ge
    string.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -this
  135. Oh, dear! the wind has blown my hat away!
    じぇいご! きみさゆうにじ ゑしゃし ぬくらえめお!
    jeigo!
    oh_no
    ki-mi-sa-yūni-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    -3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    -CAUSCausative (valency/mood)
    cause an action to occur, force another argument to act
    -blow_away-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    wesha-shi
    wind-ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    nu-kurae-meo
    my-hat-ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
  136. Alas! that news is sad indeed!
    ぬごら! ゐいっぼねのり らあきじゃ。
    nugora!
    alas
    wi-ibbon-eno-ri
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -deeply-sad-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    rāki-ja
    new.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -that
  137. Whew! that cold wind freezes my nose!
    はっちゃ! ゐぬれもさるちょり ゑしゃ ぜぎ じゃの。
    haccha!
    yowch
    wi-nu-remo-sa-rucho-ri
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -my-nose-CAUSCausative (valency/mood)
    cause an action to occur, force another argument to act
    -freeze-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    wesha
    wind.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    zegi
    cold
    jano
    that
  138. Are you warm enough now?
    るはあをげのめわ しゅて もじゃぎ?
    ru-hāwo-genome-wa
    2Second person (person)
    addressee (you)
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -warm-now-PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
    shute
    QInterrogative
    question
    mojagi
    enough
  139. They heard the warning too late.
    ゐんへじゑすやそじ おあくご。
    wi-n-hejiwesu-yaso-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -warning-hear-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    o-aku-go
    ADVAdverbial
    e.g. English '-ly'
    -late-excess
  140. We are a brave people, and love our country.
    のんじょのわ めなさ こやじょるうめ どさぬいんそに。
    no-n-jono-wa
    1First person (person)
    speaker, signer, etc; I
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -brave-PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
    menasa
    people.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    ko-yajo-rūme
    while.SSSame subject (switch-reference)
    same subject used between clauses
    -love-feel
    dosa-nu-insoni
    for-our-country
  141. All the children came except Mary.
    ゐぬるじ せなみや かるじゃに すかめえり。
    wi-n-uru-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -come-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    sena-miya
    PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -child.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    karujani
    all
    suka-mēri
    except-Mary
  142. Jack seized a handful of pebbles and threw them into the lake.
    きみのってじ じゃっくし せなちこっとれえめお そみこにとろやあも。
    ki-mi-notte-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    -3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    -grab-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    jakku-shi
    Jack-ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    sena-chi-kotto-rē-meo
    PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -DIMDiminutive
    a smaller, lesser, weaker etc. version
    -stone-handful-ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    so-mi-koni-toro-yāmo
    then.SSSame subject (switch-reference)
    same subject used between clauses
    -3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    -throw-into-lake
  143. This cottage stood on a low hill, at some distance from the village.
    やん もちょけ ちょすなえ めやん しょけゆぼぺ。
    yan
    be_at.3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    mochoke
    cottage.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    cho-sunae
    on-hill
    meyan
    short
    shoke-yubope
    near-village
  144. On a fine summer evening, the two old people were sitting outside the door of their cottage.
    びいんぶんぐ わあろ いっね ゐんもんごどっさわ がん あさ よだめ につなっしょ ろじょふづみろ うふもちょけ。
    biin-bungu
    during-evening
    wāro
    summer
    inne
    fine
    wi-n-mongo-dossa-wa
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -sit-before-PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
    gan
    two
    asa
    person.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    yodame
    old
    nitsu-nassho
    in-outdoors
    rojo-hu-dzumiro
    next_to-POSSPossessive (case)
    = GEN
    .3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    -door
    u-hu-mochoke
    GENGenitive (case)
    possessive
    -POSSPossessive (case)
    = GENGenitive (case)
    possessive
    .3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    -cottage
  145. Our bird's name is Jacko.
    じゃこ ゐべぬろわ ぬおぜ。
    jako
    Jacko
    wi-benuro-wa
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -be_called-PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
    nu-oze
    POSSPossessive (case)
    = GEN
    .1First person (person)
    speaker, signer, etc; I
    -bird.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
  146. The river knows the way to the sea.
    きみづいり まりよわいし ずふろめお らもじゅ。
    ki-mi-dzui-ri
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    -3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    -know-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    mari-yowai-shi
    DEFDefinite
    "the"
    -river-ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    zuhuro-meo
    path-ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    ramo-ju
    to-sea
  147. The boat sails away, like a bird on the wing.
    ゐなあよおてやわ えのぜ まぞ まりうこおと。
    wi-nāyō-teya-wa
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -sail-away-PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
    en-oze
    as-bird
    ma-zo
    PTCPParticiple
    adjectival form of a verb
    -fly
    mari-ukōto
    DEFDefinite
    "the"
    -boat.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
  148. They looked cautiously about, but saw nothing.
    ゐんひんじ おめゆ さち ゑ きっみあしじ ししぇゆめお。
    wi-n-hin-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -look-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    o-meyu
    ADVAdverbial
    e.g. English '-ly'
    -cautious
    sachi
    but
    we
    NEGNegative (polarity)
    not
    ki-n-mi-ashi-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    -see-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    shisheyu-meo
    nothing-ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
  149. The little house had three rooms, a sitting room, a bedroom, and a tiny kitchen.
    みざまりこでえ よぺ やん ぴと ちゃこ、えんちゃへど、ちゃにんが、ちゃやれん ちょぺ。
    miza-mari-kodē
    within-DEFDefinite
    "the"
    -house
    yope
    small
    yan
    be_at.3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    pito
    three
    chako
    room.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    en-chahedo,
    as-living_room
    chaninga,
    bedroom
    chayaren
    kitchen
    chope
    tiny
  150. We visited my uncle's village, the largest village in the world.
    にっみえかうじ うぬほき ふゆぼぺめお ま ゐはりどんばじ ちょふごさ うどら。
    ni-n-mi-ekau-ji
    1First person (person)
    speaker, signer, etc; I
    .ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    -visit-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    u-nu-hoki
    GENGenitive (case)
    possessive
    -my-uncle
    hu-yubope-meo
    POSSPossessive (case)
    = GEN
    .3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    -village-ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    ma
    that.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    wi-hari-donba-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -most-large-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    cho-hu-gosa
    on-POSSPossessive (case)
    = GEN
    .3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    -back
    u-dora
    GENGenitive (case)
    possessive
    -world
  151. We learn something new each day.
    のぬらあきしぇんわ かるやどお。
    no-n-rāki-shen-wa
    1First person (person)
    speaker, signer, etc; I
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -new-learn-PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
    karu-yadō
    every-day
  152. The market begins five minutes earlier this week.
    ゐでたり なやしょ こじょばしぇぞげ ぼらへん せす じぇわどっさ。
    wi-deta-ri
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -begin-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    nayasho
    market.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    ko-joba-shezo-ge
    while-early-week-this
    bora-hen
    INSTRInstrumental (case)
    'with' 'using'
    -five
    sesu
    minute
    jewa-dossa
    over-before
  153. Did you find the distance too great?
    ゐばあれごじ りとしゅて あぶてや?
    wi-bāre-go-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -long-excess-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    rito-shute
    think-QInterrogative
    question
    abuteya
    distance.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
  154. Hurry, children.
    きちゃで、せなみや。
    kicha-de,
    rush-INCHInchoative (aspect)
    'beginning, becoming'
    sena-miya
    PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -child
  155. Madam, I will obey your command.
    のや、のあけより すいくしょん。
    noya,
    lady
    no-akeyo-ri
    1First person (person)
    speaker, signer, etc; I
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -obey-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    suiku-shon
    command-GERGerund
    verbal noun
  156. Here under this tree they gave their guests a splendid feast.
    にっみがやりうじ ひごいなんげ ごじゃめお がえ らもふせなえかうさ。
    ni-n-mi-gaya-riu-ji
    1First person (person)
    speaker, signer, etc; I
    .ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    -provide-here-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    higo-inan-ge
    under-tree-this
    goja-meo
    feast-ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    gae
    wonderful
    ramo-hu-sena-ekausa
    to-POSSPossessive (case)
    = GEN
    .3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -visitor
  157. In winter I get up at night, and dress by yellow candlelight.
    のれきそめりちわ ぜい びいんちゅに そうもお にこあんぐ ぼおぎ ちいほやらい。
    no-rekiso-merichi-wa
    1First person (person)
    speaker, signer, etc; I
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -get_up-night-PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
    zei
    always
    biin-chuni
    during-winter
    so-umō
    then.SSSame subject (switch-reference)
    same subject used between clauses
    -put_on
    niko-angu
    among-light
    bōgi
    yellow
    chii-hoyarai
    from-candle
  158. Tell the last part of that story again.
    およじぇんざっぽり みふじゃに ねいめ うをおじゃ。
    oyo-jen-zappo-ri
    ANTIPAntipassive voice (valency)
    valency is decreased by one
    -again-narrate-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    mi-hu-jani
    of-POSSPossessive (case)
    = GEN
    .3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    -part
    neime
    last
    u-wō-ja
    GENGenitive (case)
    possessive
    -story-that
  159. Be quick or you will be too late.
    ぎしで おめ るあくごり。
    gishi-de
    fast-INCHInchoative (aspect)
    'beginning, becoming'
    ome
    or_else
    ru-aku-go-ri
    2Second person (person)
    addressee (you)
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -late-excess-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
  160. Will you go with us or wait here?
    るらあんくうり しゅて らお るおよそべりうり?
    ru-rān-ku-u-ri
    2Second person (person)
    addressee (you)
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -us-with-go-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    shute
    QInterrogative
    question
    rao
    or
    ru-oyo-sobe-riu-ri
    2Second person (person)
    addressee (you)
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -ANTIPAntipassive voice (valency)
    valency is decreased by one
    -wait-here-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
  161. She was always, shabby, often ragged, and on cold days very uncomfortable.
    ゐじぇこんどっさわ ぜい、ゐげっどわ ちょぽ、ゐだれいっかわ びいんせなやどお ぜぎ。
    wi-jekon-dossa-wa
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -shabby-before-PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
    zei,
    always
    wi-geddo-wa
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -ragged-PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
    chopo,
    often
    wi-darei-kka-wa
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -uncomfortable-intensifier-PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
    biin-sena-yadō
    during-PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -day
    zegi
    cold
  162. Think first and then act.
    ざはに どっさあしょん。
    zahan-i
    think-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    dossa-a-shon
    before-do-GERGerund
    verbal noun
  163. I stood, a little mite of a girl, upon a chair by the window, and watched the falling snowflakes.
    のきそじ まひ よぺ えんちこおぜ ちょもんごら ろじょらいつ こみごあし しゃきたっめお まじが。
    no-kiso-ji
    1First person (person)
    speaker, signer, etc; I
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -stand-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    mahi
    girl.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    yope
    small
    en-chikōze
    as-hummingbird
    cho-mongora
    on-chair
    rojo-raitsu
    next_to-window
    ko-mi-goashi
    while.SSSame subject (switch-reference)
    same subject used between clauses
    -3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    -watch
    shakitan-meo
    snowflake-ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    ma-jiga
    PTCPParticiple
    adjectival form of a verb
    -fall
  164. Show the guests these shells, my son, and tell them their strange history.
    ぬやる、およさやしり みまりなえかうさ みせないざげ、およさやそり みふをがひん はれい。
    nu-yaru,
    my-son
    oyo-sai-ashi-ri
    ANTIPAntipassive voice (valency)
    valency is decreased by one
    -show-see-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    mi-marina-ekausa
    of-DEFDefinite
    "the"
    .PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -visitor
    mi-sena-iza-ge
    of-PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -shell-this
    oyo-sai-yaso-ri
    ANTIPAntipassive voice (valency)
    valency is decreased by one
    -show-hear-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    mi-hu-wogahin
    of-POSSPossessive (case)
    = GEN
    .3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    -history
    harei
    strange
  165. Be satisfied with nothing but your best.
    ぞずっのり みししぇゆ すくしゅばちゅう。
    zo-zunno-ri
    NEGNegative (polarity)
    not
    -accept-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    mi-shisheyu
    of-nothing
    suku-shu-bachū
    except-your-best
  166. We consider them our faithful friends.
    にっみあこおわ かいっめお えんせなみっか りの。
    ni-n-mi-akō-wa
    1First person (person)
    speaker, signer, etc; I
    .ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    -behave-PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
    kain-meo
    they-ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    en-sena-mikka
    as-PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -friend
    rino
    faithful
  167. We will make this place our home.
    にっみゆびとさばきり じゃけっめおげ。
    ni-n-mi-yubito-sa-baki-ri
    1First person (person)
    speaker, signer, etc; I
    .ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    -home-CAUSCausative (valency/mood)
    cause an action to occur, force another argument to act
    -become-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    jaken-meo-ge
    place-ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    -this
  168. The squirrels make their nests warm and snug with soft moss and leaves.
    きっみほじり びこきし いいばめお えんはあを もち ぼらけぽ よ んでれ しゃあど。
    ki-n-mi-hoji-ri
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    -build-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    bikoki-shi
    squirrel-ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    iiba-meo
    nest-ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    en-hāwo
    as-warm
    mochi
    cozy
    bora-kepo
    INSTRInstrumental (case)
    'with' 'using'
    -leaf
    yo
    and
    ndere
    moss
    shādo
    soft
  169. The little girl made the doll's dress herself.
    いちまひし きみとゑすじ ふながめお うさんがさ。
    i-chi-mahi-shi
    emphatic-DIMDiminutive
    a smaller, lesser, weaker etc. version
    -girl-ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    ki-mi-towesu-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    -3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    -make-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    hu-naga-meo
    POSSPossessive (case)
    = GEN
    .3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    -dress-ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    u-sangasa
    GENGenitive (case)
    possessive
    -doll
  170. I hurt myself.
    にさづばじ。
    ni-sadzuba-ji
    1First person (person)
    speaker, signer, etc; I
    .ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    -injure-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
  171. She was talking to herself.
    きさずどっさわ。
    ki-sazu-dossa-wa
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    -talk-before-PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
  172. He proved himself trustworthy.
    ゐおよさいじ ちゃさがめしょん。
    wi-oyo-sai-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -ANTIPAntipassive voice (valency)
    valency is decreased by one
    -show-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    chasa-game-shon
    trust-deserve-GERGerund
    verbal noun
  173. We could see ourselves in the water.
    にんひんじ でい じょまりおお。
    ni-n-hin-ji
    1First person (person)
    speaker, signer, etc; I
    .ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -look-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    dei
    ABILAbilitative (mood)
    expresses ability
    jo-mari-ō
    on-DEFDefinite
    "the"
    -water
  174. Do it yourself.
    いしゃ あり。
    i-sha
    emphatic-you
    a-ri
    do-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
  175. I feel ashamed of myself.
    のがおりるうめり やらあ。
    no-gaori-rūme-ri
    1First person (person)
    speaker, signer, etc; I
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -shame-feel-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    ya-rā
    because_of-me
  176. Sit here by yourself.
    もんごるいり おくひ。
    mongo-riu-ri
    sit-here-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    o-kuhi
    ADVAdverbial
    e.g. English '-ly'
    -alone
  177. The dress of the little princess was embroidered with roses, the national flower of the Country.
    ゐえてぼにじ ふなが うちきねら こみさし せなぱろめお、ふあんわ でずの うまりいんそに。
    wi-e-teboni-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -be-embroider-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    hu-naga
    POSSPossessive (case)
    = GEN
    .3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    -dress.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    u-chi-kinera
    GENGenitive (case)
    possessive
    -DIMDiminutive
    a smaller, lesser, weaker etc. version
    -princess
    ko-mi-sashi
    while.SSSame subject (switch-reference)
    same subject used between clauses
    -3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    -depict
    sena-paro-meo,
    PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -rose-ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    hu-anwa
    POSSPossessive (case)
    = GEN
    .3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    -flower
    dezuno
    official
    u-mari-insoni
    GENGenitive (case)
    possessive
    -DEFDefinite
    "the"
    -country
  178. They wore red caps, the symbol of liberty.
    きっみれくじ くらえめお ざろん ま ゐんしんさいきじ。
    ki-n-mi-reku-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    -wear-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    kurae-meo
    hat-ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    zaron
    red
    ma
    that.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    wi-n-shin-saiki-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -free-represent-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
  179. With him as our protector, we fear no danger.
    ゑ くかい えんくはさ にっみきかわ ぞずかめお。
    we
    NEGNegative (polarity)
    not
    ku-kai
    with-him
    en-kuha-sa
    as-protect-agent
    ni-n-mi-kika-wa
    1First person (person)
    speaker, signer, etc; I
    .ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    -fear-PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
    zo-zuka-meo
    NEGNegative (polarity)
    not
    -danger-ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
  180. All her finery, lace, ribbons, and feathers, was packed away in a trunk.
    ゐんとぞゑすみざぜくもじ ふにしょ、てべん わっせ じぇし かるじゃに。
    wi-n-tozowesu-miza-zekumo-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -folded_up-within-suitcase-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    hu-nisho,
    her-fancy.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    teben
    lace.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    wasse
    ribbon.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    jeshi
    feather.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    karujani
    every
  181. Light he thought her, like a feather.
    ゐざはんじ ゐいえかむいわ えんじぇし。
    wi-zahan-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -think-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    wi-ieka-mui-wa
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -light-then-PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
    en-jeshi
    as-feather
  182. Every spring and fall our cousins pay us a long visit.
    きっもえかうんざあめわ びいんかるあるん かるどおゆ ふせなげんたおし。
    ki-n-mo-ekau-nza-ame-wa
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -1First person (person)
    speaker, signer, etc; I
    .ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    -visit-for-long_time-PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
    biin-karu-arun
    during-every-spring
    karu-dōyu
    every-autumn
    hu-sena-gentao-shi
    POSSPossessive (case)
    = GEN
    .1First person (person)
    speaker, signer, etc; I
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -cousin-ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
  183. In our climate the grass remains green all winter.
    ゐきよんでんざちゅに きじお やいわんげげ。
    wi-kiyo-nde-nza-chuni
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -green-stay-for-winter
    kijio
    grass.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    ya-iwange-ge
    because_of-weather-this
  184. The boy who brought the book has gone.
    ゐえわじ めき ま ゐあらんそしゃじ。
    wi-ewa-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -leave-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    meki
    boy.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    ma
    that.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    wi-aran-sosha-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -book-bring-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
  185. These are the flowers that you ordered.
    かえ しゅちゃん あんわ。
    kae
    here
    shu-chan
    your-order.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    anwa
    flower
  186. I have lost the book that you gave me.
    にみぶいんじ あらっめお まめお すもかじ。
    ni-mi-buin-ji
    1First person (person)
    speaker, signer, etc; I
    .ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    -3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    -lose-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    aran-meo
    book-ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    ma-meo
    that-ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    su-mo-ka-ji
    2Second person (person)
    addressee (you)
    .ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    -1First person (person)
    speaker, signer, etc; I
    .ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    -give-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
  187. The fisherman who owned the boat now demanded payment.
    ゐおよすいくじ らっみかしょん にそさ まうこおとえんげ。
    wi-oyo-suiku-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -ANTIPAntipassive voice (valency)
    valency is decreased by one
    -command-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    rammika-shon
    pay-GERGerund
    verbal noun
    nisosa
    fisherman.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    ma-ukōto-enge
    PTCPParticiple
    adjectival form of a verb
    -boat-own
  188. Come when you are called.
    ろおめ るえうろづぎ うるり。
    rōme
    when.PFVPerfective (aspect)
    completed action
    ru-e-urodzugi
    2Second person (person)
    addressee (you)
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -be-call_for
    uru-ri
    come-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
  189. I shall stay at home if it rains.
    ろおめ そゑに おいて、のんでゆびとり。
    rōme
    when.PFVPerfective (aspect)
    completed action
    sowen-i
    rain-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    oite
    might
    no-nde-yubito-ri
    1First person (person)
    speaker, signer, etc; I
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -stay-home-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
  190. When he saw me, he stopped.
    ろおめ きもあし ゐうだん。
    rōme
    when.PFVPerfective (aspect)
    completed action
    ki-mo-ashi
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    -1First person (person)
    speaker, signer, etc; I
    .ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    -see
    wi-u-dan
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -go-CESCessative (aspect)
    exiting/ending a state
  191. Do not laugh at me because I seem so absent minded.
    ぞおよけえほり やげの のえるうめわ えんぽんよにえ。
    zo-oyo-kēho-ri
    NEGNegative (polarity)
    not
    -ANTIPAntipassive voice (valency)
    valency is decreased by one
    -laugh_at-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    ya-geno
    because_of-this
    no-e-rūme-wa
    1First person (person)
    speaker, signer, etc; I
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -be-feel-PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
    en-ponyonie
    as-absentminded
  192. I shall lend you the books that you need.
    にあさいえしいり せなあらっめお まめお すみぎじゃわ。
    ni-a-saieshii-ri
    1First person (person)
    speaker, signer, etc; I
    .ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    -2Second person (person)
    addressee (you)
    .ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    -lend-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    sena-aran-meo
    PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -book-ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    ma-meo
    that-ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    su-mi-gija-wa
    2Second person (person)
    addressee (you)
    .ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    -3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    -need-PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
  193. Come early next Monday if you can.
    えんぜに きね おじょば あけやどぬ。
    enzen-i
    arrive-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    kine
    should
    o-joba
    ADVAdverbial
    e.g. English '-ly'
    -early
    ake-yadonu
    following-Monday
  194. If you come early, wait in the hall.
    ろおめ るえんぜん おいて おじょば、およそべういくで。
    rōme
    when.PFVPerfective (aspect)
    completed action
    ru-enzen
    2Second person (person)
    addressee (you)
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -arrive
    oite
    might
    o-joba
    ADVAdverbial
    e.g. English '-ly'
    -early
    oyo-sobe-uiku-de
    ANTIPAntipassive voice (valency)
    valency is decreased by one
    -wait-hallway-INCHInchoative (aspect)
    'beginning, becoming'
  195. I had a younger brother whose name was Antonio.
    えじ ゑいこじえ あんとにお ゐべぬろじ。
    e-ji
    be-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    weiko-je
    brother-younger.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    antonio
    Antonio
    wi-benuro-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -be_called-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
  196. Gnomes are little men who live under the ground.
    ゐぞわさり げの、ぺんじ よぺ まゆびひごじみぞわ。
    wi-zowasa-ri
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -gnome-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    geno,
    this
    penji
    man
    yope
    small
    ma-yubi-higo-jimizowa
    PTCPParticiple
    adjectival form of a verb
    -live-under-ground
  197. He is loved by everybody, because he has a gentle disposition.
    ゐどさやじょえるうめわ みかるあさ やふめならい はつて。
    wi-dosa-yajo-e-rūme-wa
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -for-love-be-feel-PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
    mi-karuasa
    of-everyone
    ya-hu-menarai
    because_of-POSSPossessive (case)
    = GEN
    .3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    -personality
    hatsute
    gentle
  198. Hold the horse while I run and get my cap.
    けれねってで かねん のくらえうそしゃり こふのん。
    keren-ette-de
    horse-hold-INCHInchoative (aspect)
    'beginning, becoming'
    kanen
    meanwhile
    no-kurae-usosha-ri
    1First person (person)
    speaker, signer, etc; I
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -hat-get-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    ko-hunon
    while.SSSame subject (switch-reference)
    same subject used between clauses
    -run
  199. I have found the ring I lost.
    にみかぼじ しぇこめお まめお にみぶいんじ。
    ni-mi-kabo-ji
    1First person (person)
    speaker, signer, etc; I
    .ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    -3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    -find-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    sheko-meo
    ring-ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    ma-meo
    that-ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    ni-mi-buin-ji
    1First person (person)
    speaker, signer, etc; I
    .ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    -3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    -lose-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
  200. Play and I will sing.
    をざり かねん のやみり。
    woza-ri
    play-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    kanen
    meanwhile
    no-yami-ri
    1First person (person)
    speaker, signer, etc; I
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -sing-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
  201. That is the funniest story I ever heard.
    えり をおじゃ はりらぐちょ ちいかづり。
    e-ri
    be-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    wō-ja
    story.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -that
    hari-ragucho
    most-funny
    chii-kadzuri
    from-all_known
  202. She is taller than her brother.
    ゐいたり らもふゑいこ。
    wi-iita-ri
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -tall-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    ramo-hu-weiko
    to-POSSPossessive (case)
    = GEN
    .3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    -brother
  203. They are no wiser than we.
    ゑ ゐにむわり らもらあん。
    we
    NEGNegative (polarity)
    not
    wi-n-imuwa-ri
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -wise-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    ramo-rān
    to-we
  204. Light travels faster than sound.
    ゐうわ ぜい おぎし あんぐ じぇわすかじ。
    wi-u-wa
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -go-PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
    zei
    always
    o-gishi
    ADVAdverbial
    e.g. English '-ly'
    -fast
    angu
    light.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    jewa-sukaji
    over-sound
  205. We have more time than they.
    ぬやん めえ じぇわかいん。
    nuyan
    have.1First person (person)
    speaker, signer, etc; I

    time.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    jewa-kain
    over-they
  206. She has more friends than enemies.
    ゐんたちり ふせなみっか じぇわふすたぴき。
    wi-n-tachi-ri
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -count-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    hu-sena-mikka
    her-PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -friend.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    jewa-hu-sutapiki
    over-her-enemy
  207. He was very poor, and with his wife and five children lived in a little low cabin of logs and stones.
    ゐすわぜぬっかじ こゆび くきを よ へん みや につよけなん よぺ とゑじがなん せなこった。
    wi-suwazen-ukka-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -poor-intensifier-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    ko-yubi
    while.SSSame subject (switch-reference)
    same subject used between clauses
    -live
    ku-kiwo
    with-wife
    yo
    and
    hen
    five
    miya
    child
    nitsu-yokenan
    in-cabin
    yope
    small
    towe-jiganan
    made_of-log
    sena-kotto
    PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -stone
  208. When the wind blew, the traveler wrapped his mantle more closely around him.
    ろおめ ゐぷにじ まりゑしゃ ゐねらぼらもがもじ まりわんどさ。
    rōme
    when.PFVPerfective (aspect)
    completed action
    wi-puni-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -blow-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    mari-wesha
    DEFDefinite
    "the"
    -wind.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    wi-nera-bora-mogamo-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -cloak-INSTRInstrumental (case)
    'with' 'using'
    -bundle_up-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    mari-wandosa
    DEFDefinite
    "the"
    -traveler.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
  209. I am sure that we can go.
    のぬり でい やっこ。
    no-n-u-ri
    1First person (person)
    speaker, signer, etc; I
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -go-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    dei
    ABILAbilitative (mood)
    expresses ability
    yakko
    certain
  210. We went back to the place where we saw the roses.
    のんほじぇんじ ちょのんぱろひんじ。
    no-n-hojen-ji
    1First person (person)
    speaker, signer, etc; I
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -return-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    cho-no-n-paro-hin-ji
    where-1First person (person)
    speaker, signer, etc; I
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -rose-look-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
  211. "This tree is fifty feet high," said the gardener.
    「やん いならざぶげ みへん だゐ」 ゐじこじ しつわさ。
    yan
    be_at.3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    inan-razabu-ge
    tree-height.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -this
    mihen
    fifteen
    dawi
    meter
    wi-jiko-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -say-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    shitsuwasa
    gardener.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
  212. I think that this train leaves five minutes earlier today.
    ゐえわり らえし はぬかんてげ こじょばぺった ぼらへん せす じぇわどっさ。
    wi-ewa-ri
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -leave-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    raeshi
    probably
    hanukante-ge
    train.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -this
    ko-joba-petta
    while-early-today
    bora-hen
    INSTRInstrumental (case)
    'with' 'using'
    -five
    sesu
    minute
    jewa-dossa
    over-before
  213. My opinion is that the governor will grant him a pardon.
    きみれやねり りと ねくしょふとし。
    ki-mi-reyane-ri
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    -3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    -pardon-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    rito
    opinion
    nekushohuto-shi
    governor-ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
  214. Why he has left the city is a mystery.
    ゐやしわ ふえら えわちいつないしょん。
    wi-yashi-wa
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -unknown-PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
    hu-era
    his-purpose.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    ewa-chii-tsunai-shon
    leave-from-city-GERGerund
    verbal noun
  215. The house stands where three roads meet.
    やん こでえ ちゃきねかわ ぴと ずふかんし。
    yan
    be_at.3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    kodē
    house.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    cha-ki-n-eka-wa
    where-3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -meet-PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
    pito
    three
    zuhukan-shi
    road-ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
  216. He has far more money than brains.
    きみみぞわ わぜっめお じぇわずはん。
    ki-mi-mizo-wa
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    -3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    -filled-PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
    wazen-meo
    money-ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    jewa-zuhan
    over-intelligence
  217. Evidently that gate is never opened, for the long grass and the great hemlocks grow close against it.
    ゑ ゐえみろまどさわ あふろじ づみなしょじゃ ないこ ゐんぼんせり おろじ きじお いいた よ つが どんば。
    we
    NEGNegative (polarity)
    not
    wi-e-miro-madosa-wa
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -be-open-never-PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
    ahuroji
    deduce
    dzuminasho-ja
    gate.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -that
    naiko
    for
    wi-n-bonse-ri
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -sprout-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    o-roji
    ADVAdverbial
    e.g. English '-ly'
    -close
    kijio
    grass.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    iita
    tall
    yo
    and
    tsuga
    hemlock.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    donba
    large
  218. I met a little cottage girl; she was eight years old, she said.
    にみうなじ ちまひめお;ゐじこじ ふやん すん ぜぼり。
    ni-mi-una-ji
    1First person (person)
    speaker, signer, etc; I
    .ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    -3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    -meet-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    chi-mahi-meo
    DIMDiminutive
    a smaller, lesser, weaker etc. version
    -girl-ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    wi-jiko-ji
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    -say-PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    huyan
    have.3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    sun
    eight
    zebori
    year
Comments (3)
[link] [quote] 18-Mar-17 03:01
Polylangers
For lovers of Polysynthesis
 Elinnea 
Why, thank you!
[link] [quote] 18-Mar-17 02:21
Conscripters
A clan for the scribes of conlangs!
 SoaringMoon 
Yeah, this it's very impressive.
[link] [quote] 15-Feb-17 14:18
No Life
For those who possess no life or soul
 Orikrin 
Wow.
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