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Voices in Leki
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This public article was written by [Deactivated User], and last updated on 8 Apr 2017, 07:39.

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Menu 1. Antipassive voice 2. Causative voice 3. Passive-impersonal voice 4. Reflexive-reciprocal voice 5. Combination of voices
[edit] [top]Antipassive voice

The antipassive voice is marked by infixing -m- (em-) before the last consonant of the root:
Ukoreko "I have eaten it" (object in the absolutive case)
eat.PERFPerfect (aspect/tense)
have verb-ed
AGNAgentive (case)
active or volitional case
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
, ABSAbsolutive (case)
TRANS object, INTR argument
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee

*u-KOmRE-ko > Ukobreko "I have eaten, I have finished to eat"
eat.ANTIPAntipassive voice (valency)
valency is decreased by one
PERFPerfect (aspect/tense)
have verb-ed
AGNAgentive (case)
active or volitional case
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I


Ufrero "I am talking to him/her" (object in the dative case)
talk.IPFImperfect tense/aspect (tense/aspect)
Past tense + Imperfect aspect
AGNAgentive (case)
active or volitional case
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
, DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee

*u-FrEmRO > Ufrebro "I am talking, I speak"
talk.ANTIPAntipassive voice (valency)
valency is decreased by one
IPFImperfect tense/aspect (tense/aspect)
Past tense + Imperfect aspect
AGNAgentive (case)
active or volitional case
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I


[edit] [top]Causative voice

The causative voice is expressed by suffixing -n to the root:
Wiraraf "I see them"
see.AORAorist (tense/aspect)
usually the simple past
DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
, ABSAbsolutive (case)
TRANS object, INTR argument
3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them

*WIRAn-ra-f > Wiradraf 'He/she shows them to me"
see.CAUSCausative (valency/mood)
cause an action to occur, force another argument to act
AORAorist (tense/aspect)
usually the simple past
AGNAgentive (case)
active or volitional case
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
, DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
, ABSAbsolutive (case)
TRANS object, INTR argument
3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them


An original agent in the agentive case becomes an object either in the absolutive or in the dative case:
Pafiha "They are turning"
turn.IPFImperfect tense/aspect (tense/aspect)
Past tense + Imperfect aspect
AGNAgentive (case)
active or volitional case
3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them

*PAFIn-h-a > Pafniha "They are turning it"
turn.CAUSCausative (valency/mood)
cause an action to occur, force another argument to act
IPFImperfect tense/aspect (tense/aspect)
Past tense + Imperfect aspect
AGNAgentive (case)
active or volitional case
3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
, ABSAbsolutive (case)
TRANS object, INTR argument
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee

*PAFIn-h-r > Pafnihir "He/she is turning them"
turn.CAUSCausative (valency/mood)
cause an action to occur, force another argument to act
IPFImperfect tense/aspect (tense/aspect)
Past tense + Imperfect aspect
AGNAgentive (case)
active or volitional case
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
, ABSAbsolutive (case)
TRANS object, INTR argument
3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them


Upra "I play"
play.AORAorist (tense/aspect)
usually the simple past
AGNAgentive (case)
active or volitional case
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I

Upran "I make him/her play"
play.CAUSCausative (valency/mood)
cause an action to occur, force another argument to act
AORAorist (tense/aspect)
usually the simple past
AGNAgentive (case)
active or volitional case
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
, DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee

Pranaf "He/she makes me play"
play.CAUSCausative (valency/mood)
cause an action to occur, force another argument to act
AORAorist (tense/aspect)
usually the simple past
AGNAgentive (case)
active or volitional case
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
, DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I


An original object in the dative case becomes an object in the absolutive case:
Unafero "I talk to them"
talk.AORAorist (tense/aspect)
usually the simple past
AGNAgentive (case)
active or volitional case
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
, DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them

Unaferon "I have them talk to him/her"
talk.CAUSCausative (valency/mood)
cause an action to occur, force another argument to act
AORAorist (tense/aspect)
usually the simple past
AGNAgentive (case)
active or volitional case
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
, DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
, ABSAbsolutive (case)
TRANS object, INTR argument
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee

*u-FEROn-r > Ufernor "I have him/her talk to them"
talk.CAUSCausative (valency/mood)
cause an action to occur, force another argument to act
AORAorist (tense/aspect)
usually the simple past
AGNAgentive (case)
active or volitional case
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
, DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
, ABSAbsolutive (case)
TRANS object, INTR argument
3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them

*FEROn-r-f > Ferodrof "He/she has me talk to them"
talk.CAUSCausative (valency/mood)
cause an action to occur, force another argument to act
AORAorist (tense/aspect)
usually the simple past
AGNAgentive (case)
active or volitional case
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
, DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
, ABSAbsolutive (case)
TRANS object, INTR argument
3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them


Verbs with three arguments (e.g. "to give", "to tell") have no causative voice.

[edit] [top]Passive-impersonal voice

The passive-impersonal voice is indicated by r- (or-, ro-) prefixed to the root:
Korekor "He has eaten them" (object in the absolutive case)
eat.PERFPerfect (aspect/tense)
have verb-ed
AGNAgentive (case)
active or volitional case
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
, ABSAbsolutive (case)
TRANS object, INTR argument
3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them

Orkorekor "They have been eaten, one has eaten them"
eat.PASSPassive voice (valency)
be verb-ed
/ IMPERImpersonal (valency)
Has no arguments
PERFPerfect (aspect/tense)
have verb-ed
ABSAbsolutive (case)
TRANS object, INTR argument
3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them


Nafrero "He/she is talking to them" (object in the dative case)
talk.IPFImperfect tense/aspect (tense/aspect)
Past tense + Imperfect aspect
AGNAgentive (case)
active or volitional case
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
, DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I

*na-roFrERO > Narofrero "They are being talked to, one is talking to them"
talk.PASSPassive voice (valency)
be verb-ed
/ IMPERImpersonal (valency)
Has no arguments
IPFImperfect tense/aspect (tense/aspect)
Past tense + Imperfect aspect
DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I


Note that the agent cannot be expressed when the passive-impersonal voice is used ("They are being talked to by him/her" > "He/she is talking to them").

[edit] [top]Reflexive-reciprocal voice

Infixation of -w- after the first consonant of the root indicates reflexivity in the singular and reciprocity or reflexivity in the plural:
Upomoh "I am washing it" (object in the absolutive case)
wash.IPFImperfect tense/aspect (tense/aspect)
Past tense + Imperfect aspect
AGNAgentive (case)
active or volitional case
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
, ABSAbsolutive (case)
TRANS object, INTR argument
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee

Upwomoh "I am washing (myself)"
wash.REFLReflexive (valency)
argument acts on itself
/ RECPReciprocal (valency)
arguments act on each other
IPFImperfect tense/aspect (tense/aspect)
Past tense + Imperfect aspect
AGNAgentive (case)
active or volitional case
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I


Freroa "They are talking to him/her" (object in the dative case)
talk.IPFImperfect tense/aspect (tense/aspect)
Past tense + Imperfect aspect
AGNAgentive (case)
active or volitional case
3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
, DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee

Fwereroa "They are talking to each other" or "They are talking to themselves"
talk.REFLReflexive (valency)
argument acts on itself
/ RECPReciprocal (valency)
arguments act on each other
IPFImperfect tense/aspect (tense/aspect)
Past tense + Imperfect aspect
AGNAgentive (case)
active or volitional case
3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them


[edit] [top]Combination of voices

  • Antipassive + causative

  • Ukrore "I am eating it"
    Antipassive: Ukrobre "I am eating"
    Causative: Ukroren "I am making him/her eat it"
    Antipassive + causative: Ukrobren "I am feeding him/her"

  • Antipassive + passive/impersonal

  • Xefkof ar mapu "He has told me the truth"
    Antipassive: Xepfeko 'r mapu "He has told the truth"
    Passive: Orxefkof ar mapu "I have been told the truth, one has told me the truth"
    Antipassive + passive: Orxepfeko 'r mapu "The truth has been told, one has told the truth"

  • Reflexive/reciprocal + causative

  • Upomo "I wash it"
    Reflexive: Upwomo "I wash (myself)"
    Causative: Upomon "I make him/her wash it"
    Reflexive + causative: Upwomon "I make him/her wash (himself/herself)"


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