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Kasewayan grammar
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my 3rd attempt on writing this crap
This public article was written by Siblaime, and last updated on 5 Apr 2022, 16:46.

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This article is a work in progress! Check back later in case any changes have occurred.
Menu 1. Introduction: worldbuilding 2. Morphology: nouns 3. Morphology: pronouns 4. Morphology: verbs 5. Morphology: adjectives 6. Morphology: adverbs 7. Syntax: overview 8. The main clause 9. Other clauses
Article created in: January 2021

[edit] [top]Introduction: worldbuilding

The Kasewayan language (native name: casyýu casyýu or casyýu into casyýu into) is a Northern Desanian language spoken in Kasewaya and Inwez, being the official language of these countries. It also has a status of a regional language in the northwestern part of Nesyania. The total number of L1 speakers is over 30 million.

The language sharing the most grammatical similarities with Kasewayan is Rashintu, however these two languages are sometimes considered to form two separate branches within the Desanian language family.

[edit] [top]Morphology: nouns

Kasewayan nouns have number (singular and plural), case (nominative, accusative, dative + genitive marked with an preposition instead of a suffix) and gender/class (human or non-human).

Classes
All Kasewayan nouns are divided into two classes: human and non-human. They use separate case/number markers and verb forms depending on their class.
xálsė aýėl li.
Xálsə aýəl li.

xál-sə
man-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
aý-əl
PROGProgressive (aspect)
be verb-ing
.AUXAuxilliary-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
.3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
.HUMHuman (gender/class)
human or belonging to human
li
run

(The) men are running.

xerės aýil li.
Xerəs aýil li.

xer-əs
horse-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
aý-il
PROGProgressive (aspect)
be verb-ing
.AUXAuxilliary-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
.3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
.NHUMNon-human (gender/class)
li
run

(The) horses are running.

Besides words pertaining to human beings and some sentient abstractions (e.g. śesə ‘soul’, hárnə ‘deity’), this group contains human body parts as well:
umė ci ýox aýėm.
Umə ci ýox aýəm.

umə
arm
ci
my
ýox
pain
aý-əm
have-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
.3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.HUMHuman (gender/class)
human or belonging to human

My arm hurts.

Nominal cases
The three nominal cases of Kasewayan are marked with following suffixes:
NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
.HUMHuman (gender/class)
human or belonging to human
-de
-xə
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
.NHUMNon-human (gender/class)
-d
-x
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
.HUMHuman (gender/class)
human or belonging to human
-sə
-zə
-zxə
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
.NHUMNon-human (gender/class)
-s
-z
-zax
The possessive adposition , loosely translatable to “of” and often considered a genitive marker, is written separately, succeeding the possessee and preceeding the possessor. The possessee comes before the possessor, which is unusual among Desanian languages.

Usage of the cases

Nominative
This is the default case, marking the subject of a verb.
xyd baýkax zylim.
Xyd baýkax zylim.

xyd
house
baýkax
there
zyl-im
stand-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
.3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.NHUMNon-human (gender/class)

The house is located over there.
Nouns followed by a postposition usually take the nominative as well.
xyd wė kamix.
Xyd wə kamix.

xyd
house

from
kam-ix
go-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
.1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)

We are leaving the house. (literally going out/away from the house)

Accusative
Marks the direct object of a verb.
by sytádde dasec.
By sytádde dasec.

by
DISTDistal (proximity)
far from speaker (and addressee)
sytád-de
girl-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.HUMHuman (gender/class)
human or belonging to human
das-ec
like-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
.1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I

I like that girl.
However, when the object is indefinite, the accusative affix is often dropped and nominative is used instead.
zi sė ic sowys dasex.
Zi sə ic sowys dasex.

zi
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)

and
ic
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
sowy-s
apple-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
das-ex
like-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
.1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)

You and I like apples.

Dative
Marks the beneficiary or the recipient of an action.
dasani ci zátėd lunaxė bá admėn.
Dasani ci zátəd lunaxə bá admən.

dasani
friend
ci
my
zát-əd
bread-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.NHUMNon-human (gender/class)
luna-xə
sister-DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
.HUMHuman (gender/class)
human or belonging to human

PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
ad-mən
give-PTPast tense (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
.3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.HUMHuman (gender/class)
human or belonging to human

My friend gave some bread to [his/her] sister.


[edit] [top]Morphology: pronouns

Personal
The distinction between exclusive and inclusive 1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
pronouns was lost in Kasewayan.
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.HUMHuman (gender/class)
human or belonging to human
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.NHUMNon-human (gender/class)
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
ic [iːc]
zi [zi]
il [iːl]
an [an]
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
xás [ʀɑːs]
zisə [zisə]
lis [lis]
antə [antə]

Pronominal cases
Most personal pronouns have irregular declension.
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
2PSecond person plural (person)
addressee (plural)
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.HUMHuman (gender/class)
human or belonging to human
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.NHUMNon-human (gender/class)
3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
.HUMHuman (gender/class)
human or belonging to human
3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
.NHUMNon-human (gender/class)
ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
je [ɟe]
xáje [ʀɑːɟe]
zide [zide]
zesade [zesade]
ilde [iːɫde]
lesade [lesade]
anəd [anəd]
antad [antad]
DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
ixə [iʀə]
xádə [ʀɑːdə]
zexə [zeʀə]
zidxə [zidʀə]
manxə [manʀə]
ledxə [ɫedʀə]
anəx [anəʁ]
antax [antaʁ]

Possessive
In very formal situations, the possession marking is used instead. For example, dák eli ‘his/her dog’ has the same meaning as dák zə il.
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.HUMHuman (gender/class)
human or belonging to human
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.NHUMNon-human (gender/class)
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
ci [ci]
zi [ziː]
eli [eli]
ani [aɲi]
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
xasi [ʀasi]
zisi [zisi]
lisi [lisi]
anteý [antej]

Interrogative
There are two basic interrogative pronouns: ýa ‘what’ and ýi ‘who’. They are put at the end of an interrogative phrase.

[edit] [top]Morphology: verbs

Kasewayan verbs have tense (past, present and future), aspect (imperfective and perfective, the former is the default/unmarked one while the latter is marked with a particle; the progressive aspect can be marked with an auxiliary verb), person and number.
The infinitive verb ending is -en, -yn or -ən (depending on the final consonant of the verb root).

Tense
Each conjugation suffix indicates tense, person and number at the same time.
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
/2PSecond person plural (person)
addressee (plural)
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.HUMHuman (gender/class)
human or belonging to human
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.NHUMNon-human (gender/class)
3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
.HUMHuman (gender/class)
human or belonging to human
3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
.NHUMNon-human (gender/class)
Present
-ec [ec]
-əc [əc]
-ex [eʁ]
-ed [ed]
-em [em]
-əm [əm]
-im [im]
-el [eɫ]
-əl [əɫ]
-il [iɫ]
Past
-cən [cən]
-xən [ʀən]
-dən [dən]
-mən [mən]
-min [min]
-lən [ɫən]
-lin [lin]
Future
-ence [eɲce]
-enxe [enʀe]
-ende [ende]
-emme [emːe]
-emmi [emːi]
-ele [eɫe]
-eli [eli]

Negation
Negation is marked with the dummy auxiliary ben with a negative prefix attached to it. It becomes slightly irregular in a few forms.
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
/2PSecond person plural (person)
addressee (plural)
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.HUMHuman (gender/class)
human or belonging to human
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.NHUMNon-human (gender/class)
3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
.HUMHuman (gender/class)
human or belonging to human
3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
.NHUMNon-human (gender/class)
Present
kebəc [keːbəc]
kebəx [keːbəʁ]
ked [keːd]
kem [keːm]
kebim [keːbim]
kew [keːw]
kebil [keːbiɫ]
Past
kembəc [keːmbəc]
kembəx [keːmbəʁ]
kembəd [keːmbəd]
kembəm [keːmbəm]
kembim [keːmbim]
kembəl [keːmbəɫ]
kembil [keːmbiɫ]
Future
kəbince [kəbiɲce]
kəbinxe [kəbinʀe]
kəbinde [kəbinde]
kəbimme [kəbimːe]
kəbimmi [kəbimːi]
kəbile [kəbiɫe]
kəbili [kəbili]

Aspect
The default aspect is imperfective. To indicate that an action is complete (or is going to be complete), a perfective marker, , is added before the verb. When an imperfective action has a direct object, it is treated as indefinite (as if it was “some” object or “a bit of” something), so it does not take the accusative marker.
tymal zam cosmin.
Tymal zam cosmin.

tymal
cat
zam
cheese
cos-min
eat-PTPast tense (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
.3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.NHUMNon-human (gender/class)

The cat ate some cheese. (it has not completed the action)

tymal zamėz bá cosmin.
Tymal zaməz bá cosmin.

tymal
cat
zam-əz
cheese-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.NHUMNon-human (gender/class)

PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
cos-min
eat-PTPast tense (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
.3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.NHUMNon-human (gender/class)

The cat ate the cheese.

tymal zamėz bá cosemmi.
Tymal zaməz bá cosemmi.

tymal
cat
zam-əz
cheese-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.NHUMNon-human (gender/class)

PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
cos-emmi
eat-FTFuture tense (tense)
action occurring after the moment of speech
.3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.NHUMNon-human (gender/class)

The cat is going to eat the cheese.

Progressive aspect is marked with the auxiliary verb aýən (literally meaning ‘to have’):
tymal zamėz aýim cose.
Tymal zaməz aýim cose.

tymal
cat
zam-əz
cheese-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.NHUMNon-human (gender/class)
aý-im
PROGProgressive (aspect)
be verb-ing
.AUXAuxilliary-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
.3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.NHUMNon-human (gender/class)
cose
eat

The cat is eating the cheese.

tymal zamėz aýmin cose.
Tymal zaməz aýmin cose.

tymal
cat
zam-əz
cheese-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.NHUMNon-human (gender/class)
aý-min
PROGProgressive (aspect)
be verb-ing
.AUXAuxilliary-PTPast tense (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
.3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.NHUMNon-human (gender/class)
cose
eat

The cat was eating the cheese.

Voice
Passive constructions are created from a past participle form of a verb and the auxiliary verb nowen (derived from Old Desani nuhi- ‘to become’).
za watė xás ep zosani nowim.
Za watə xás ep zosani nowim.

za
PROXProximal (proximity)
close to speaker
watə
book
xás
1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
ep
by
zos-ani
write-PSPARTPast participle
now-im
AUXAuxilliary.PASSPassive voice (valency)
be verb-ed
-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.NHUMNon-human (gender/class)

This book is (being) written by us.

kelec za sowys zi ep cosani meý nowil.
Kelec za sowys zi ep cosani meý nowil.

kel-ec
want-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
.1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
za
PROXProximal (proximity)
close to speaker
sowy-s
apple-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
.NHUMNon-human (gender/class)
zi
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
ep
by
cos-ani
eat-PSPARTPast participle
meý
OPTOptative (mood)
'wish, hope'
now-il
AUXAuxilliary.PASSPassive voice (valency)
be verb-ed
-3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
.NHUMNon-human (gender/class)

I want these apples to be eaten by you.

Reflexive voice is marked with pronouns, equivalent to English ‘myself’, ‘yourself’ etc.
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
2PSecond person plural (person)
addressee (plural)
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
Pronoun
suc [suc]
soru [soru]
suz [suz]
sozu [sozu]
sum [sum]
sul [suɫ]

tymal sum aýim kape.
Tymal sum aýim kape.

tymal
cat
sum
itself
aý-im
AUXAuxilliary.PROGProgressive (aspect)
be verb-ing
-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
.3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.NHUMNon-human (gender/class)
kape
wash

The cat is washing itself.
Reciprocal actions are marked in the same way:
sekre soru cemex.
Sekre soru cemex.

sekre
tomorrow
soru
ourselves
cem-ex
see-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
.1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)

We are going to see each other tomorrow.

Copula
The main copula verb ýən ‘to be’ is irregular and has only two present tense forms: declarative eýi ‘is/are’ and negative káý ‘is not/are not’ (the latter actually being related to aýən ‘to have’ rather than to ýən).
cum secil pi januni ásy eýi.
Cum secil pi januni ásy eýi.

cum
sky
secil
summer
pi
in
januni
usually
ásy
blue
eýi
COPCopula
used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate

The sky in summer is usually blue.

xasi lica pi olos káý.
Xasi lica pi olos káý.

xasi
our
lica
garden
pi
in
olo-s
tree-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
.NHUMNon-human (gender/class)
káý
NEGNegative (polarity)
not
.COPCopula
used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate

There are no trees in our garden.

For non-present tenses, it is conjugated as follows:
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
/2PSecond person plural (person)
addressee (plural)
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
Past
icən [iːcən]
ixən [iːʀən]
in [iːn]
im [iːm]
ilən [iːɫən]
Future
inca [iɲca]
ixna [iʀna]
inda [inda]
imma [imːa]
inna [inːa]
Negative forms are created by replacing the initial /i/ or /iː/ with /ke/.

Auxiliary verbs
Besides the dummy auxiliary verb used for negation and questions, there is a number of unconjugated modals used for marking moods:
meýOPTOptative (mood)
'wish, hope'

semPOTPotential (mood)
likely events, ability

zoýCONDConditional (mood)
would
They are put before the main verb, which is normally conjugated to indicate the person and number of its subject.

Derivational morphology
WIP.

[edit] [top]Morphology: adjectives

Adjectives preceed the described noun. They usually end with -eý or -y, but there is a number of other adjectivizers.
The comparative suffix is -t (with an epenthetic schwa when the adjective ends with a consonant) and the superlative form is marked by a circumfix: ci- plus -t:
tekeý ‘bright’
tekeýət ‘brighter’
citekeýət ‘the brightest’
Some adjectives have irregular comparative and/or superlative forms.

Like in other Desanian languages, adjectives in Kasewayan cannot be inflected; they remain the same regardless of the number and case of the noun they describe.

[edit] [top]Morphology: adverbs

Overview
The default adverbial ending is -uni; when creating an adverb from an adjective, the adjectivizer is replaced with this suffix.
For example:
jeleý ‘happy’ → jeluni ‘happily’
paty ‘low; bottom’ → patuni ‘low; at the bottom’
Such adverbs can be compared just like their adjectival equivalents:
cakuni ‘slowly’
cakunit ‘more slowly’
cicakunit ‘most slowly’
Most adverbs without this ending are incomparable and denote time or location. Some of them are identical to nouns, adjectives or adpositions, e.g. jizə ‘now’ (also meaning ‘the present’), cab ‘down’ (also meaning ‘the lower part’).

Interrogative and relative adverbs
Interrogative adverbs were derived from their Old Desani equivalents.
adverbEnglish meaning
káxze káxze
where
jiýa jiýa
when
lu lu
how
yýa yýa
why
ýuni ýuni
how much
ýawni ýawni
how many

When used, they are put just before the verb:
Petan ci káxze eýi? “Where is my hat?”
Umiýə jiýa bim uni? “When does the lesson start?”
Xaside jizə yýa bed xaý? “Why are you leaving us now?

Relative adverbs are identical to their interrogative equivalents, except for jiýa (interrogative) vs. jira (relative) ‘when’ and káxze (interrogative) vs. kára (relative) ‘where’.

[edit] [top]Syntax: overview

Typically for a Desanian language, Kasewayan is fusional and strongly head-final. The default word order is SOV, however in some contexts OSV can be used to emphasize the object. For example: il di málem (3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
love-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
.3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.HUMHuman (gender/class)
human or belonging to human
) ‘he/she loves you’ vs. di il málem (2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
love-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
.3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.HUMHuman (gender/class)
human or belonging to human
) ‘it is you whom he/she loves’.
In general, the subject can be dropped when it is obvious from the context, as the person and the number of the subject are already marked by conjugational suffixes.

[edit] [top]The main clause

Declarative
Basic declarative clauses are SV by default.
ád baýkax haýėm.
Ád baýkax haýəm.

ád
child
baýkax
there
haý-əm
sleep-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
.3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.HUMHuman (gender/class)
human or belonging to human

The child sleeps there.

ád baýkax bá haýmėn.
Ád baýkax bá haýmən.

ád
child
baýkax
there

PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
haý-mən
sleep-PTPast tense (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
.3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee

The child slept there.

ád kelėm haýėn.
Ád keləm haýən.

ád
child
kel-əm
want-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
.3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
haý-ən
sleep-INFInfinitive (TAM)
non-tensed verb

The child wants to sleep.

Negative
As mentioned in the Negation section, verbs can be made negative with a dummy auxiliary. It does not change the word order. The auxiliary preceeds the main verb, which is used in an impersonal form.
ád baýkax kem haý.
Ád baýkax kem haý.

ád
child
baýkax
there
kem
NEGNegative (polarity)
not
.PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
.3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.HUMHuman (gender/class)
human or belonging to human
haý
sleep

The child does not sleep there.

ád baýkax kembėm haý.
Ád baýkax kembəm haý.

ád
child
baýkax
there
kembəm
NEGNegative (polarity)
not
.PTPast tense (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
.3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.HUMHuman (gender/class)
human or belonging to human
haý
sleep

The child did not sleep there.

ád kem keli haýėn.
Ád kem keli haýən.

ád
child
kem
NEGNegative (polarity)
not
.PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
.3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.HUMHuman (gender/class)
human or belonging to human
keli
want
haý-ən
sleep-INFInfinitive (TAM)
non-tensed verb

The child does not want to sleep.

Interrogative
In questions, the dummy auxiliary ben is used as well. The word order remains the same and the auxiliary preceeds the main verb like it does in negative clauses.
watės bed taý?
Watəs bed taý?

watə-s
book-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
.NHUMNon-human (gender/class)
b-ed
AUXAuxilliary-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
.2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
taý
read

Do you read books?

watad bedėn taý?
Watad bedən taý?

wata-d
book-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.NHUMNon-human (gender/class)
b-edən
AUXAuxilliary-2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
.PTPast tense (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
taý
read

Did you read the book?

watė bed keli taýėn?
Watə bed keli taýən?

watə
book
b-ed
AUXAuxilliary-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
.2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
keli
want
taý-ən
read-INFInfinitive (TAM)
non-tensed verb

Do you want to read a book?


[edit] [top]Other clauses

Relative
Relative adverbs are mostly the same as their interrogative equivalents (see Morphology: adverbs). The three relative pronouns are reý ‘which’, ry ‘who’ and ra ‘what’. They can decline for case and number.
xál, id ry cemem, petan aýėm.
Xál, ry id cemem, petan aýəm.

xál
man
id
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
ry
who.RELZRelativiser (derivation)
cem-em
see-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
.3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.HUMHuman (gender/class)
human or belonging to human
petan
hat
aý-əm
have-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
.3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.HUMHuman (gender/class)
human or belonging to human

The man who sees me has a/the hat.

xál, ryde cemec, petan aýėm.
Xál, ryde cemec, petan aýəm.

xál
man
ry-de
who.RELZRelativiser (derivation)-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
cem-ec
see-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
.1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
petan
hat
aý-əm
have-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
.3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.HUMHuman (gender/class)
human or belonging to human

The man whom I see has a/the hat.
If the head of the clause has a case marker, the relative pronoun can take another case marker.
sytádde cemec, xál ryxe petanėd adem.
Sytádde cemec, xál ryxe petanəd adem.

sytád-de
girl-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.HUMHuman (gender/class)
human or belonging to human
cem-ec
see-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
.1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
xál
man
ry-xe
who.RELZRelativiser (derivation)-DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
petan-əd
hat-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.NHUMNon-human (gender/class)
ad-em
give-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
.3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.HUMHuman (gender/class)
human or belonging to human

I see the girl the man gives the hat to.

Subordinate
Subordinate clauses are marked by the particle e. The word order remains the same.
ixė bá immėn e by lásy káý.
Ixə bá immən e by lásy káý.

ixə
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location

PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
im-mən
tell-PTPast tense (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
.3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.HUMHuman (gender/class)
human or belonging to human
e
SBRCSubordinate clause (syntax)
marks a subordinate clause
by
DISTDistal (proximity)
far from speaker (and addressee)
lásy
possible
káý
NEGNegative (polarity)
not
.COPCopula
used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate

He/she told me that it was not possible.

Conditional
WIP.

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