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Phonology and Orthography
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This public article was written by [Deactivated User], and last updated on 29 Dec 2021, 04:05.

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Phonology and Orthography

The phonology of ſlw has a relatively low consonant to vowel ratio. The orthography is not deep (the spelling follows the sounds quite well) and the graphemes of the romanization and actual script have a 1-1 correspondence.


1. Phonology
1.1. Phonemes
  1.1.1. Consonants
  1.1.2. Vowels
1.2. Phonotactics
  1.2.1. Onset
  1.2.2. Nucleus
  1.2.3. Coda
1.3. Prosody
  1.3.1. Prosodic stress
  1.3.2. Rhythm
  1.3.3. Intonation
2. Orthography
2.1. Romanization
  2.1.1 Vowels
  2.1.2 Consonants
  2.1.3 Notes
2.2. Script
  2.2.1 Main Letters
  2.2.2 Stop Markings
  2.2.3 Block Text


1. Phonology


1.1. Phonemes
 1.1.1. Consonants
  ſlw contains four stops /p/, /t/1, /k/, /ʔ/; seven fricatives /ɸ/, /s/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/, /ɭ̝/2, /ɣ/, /h/; two nasals /n/, /ŋ/; and four approximates /ʎ/, /l/, /ɹ/, /w/3
  1often allophonically flapped excepting the first phoneme of a word, rendered as /ɾ/
  2non-sibilant alveolar lateral fricative, sounds similar to θ
  3labio-velar
  
ConsonantsBilabialAlveolarPost-Alveolar/
Palatal
VelarGlottal
Stop/p//t/1/k//ʔ/
Fricative/ɸ//s/ /ɭ̝/2
/ʃ/,/ʒ/
/h/
Approximate /ɹ/ /l//w/3
Nasal



 1.1.2. Vowels
Vowels FrontNear-
Front
CentralNear-
Back
Back
Close /i/
Near-Close
Close-Mid /e/
Open-Mid /ɛ/ /ʌ/
Near-Open/æ/     
Open                  /ɑ/




1.2. Phonotactics
 1.2.1. Onsets
  Every single consonant is legal as an onset before a vocalic nucleus
  In addition, the following clusters are legal onsets before a vocalic nucleus
/ʎ//ɹ//w//l//n//ŋ//ɸ//s//ʃ//ʒ//ɣ//h//ɭ̝//p//t//k//ʔ/
/ʎ/
/ɹ/
/w/
/l/
/n/
/ŋ/
/ɸ//ɸʲ//ɸ͡ɹʷ//ɸ͡w/
/s//s͡ʍ/
/ʃ//ʃʷ/
/ʒ/
/ɣ//ɣʷ/
/h/h͡ɹʷ/ʍ//h͡l/
/ɭ̝//ɭ̝͡ɹʷ/
/p//pʷ//p͡ɸʷ//pʰ//p͡ɾ/
/t//tʷ//ɾʷ//t͡l/ /ɾ͡l//ɾ͡n//t͡ʃ//tʰ/ /ɾʰ/
/k//kʲ//kʷ//k͡l//k͡x//kʰ/
/ʔ//ʔʰ/

  1.2.1.2. Onsets preceding vocalic consonants
   ſlw has some vocalic consonants. The possible onsets before these differ than those above.
   Stops, affricates, and fricatives may precede vocalic consonants.

 1.2.2. Nucleus
  The nucleus can be:
   All vowels listed above
   Dipthongs: ei, æʌ, eʏ, ɑi, iʏ, ie, ʊe, ʊo, ʊi, ɑʊ, oʊ, eo, uɪ, ɔɪ, ɑu
   Tripthongs: ɑʊʌ, ɑiɞ, ɑuə, ʊɛi, ʊæʏ
   Vocalic consonants: l̩, n̩, s̩ (see onset restrictions above)

 1.2.3. Coda
  The coda is restricted to /l/, /n/, /ŋ/, /s/, and /ɭ̝/
  A vocalic consonant nucleus does not take a coda with one exception
   -/l̩/ can be followed by /n/


1.3. Prosody
  Stress is always on the penultimate syllable.


2. Orthography


2.1. Romanization
  The romanization does not use strictly latin letters. Some come from Greek, IPA, or Cyrillic. The graphemes follow the phonemes closely but not perfectly. Some letters used to represent more than one albeit similar sounds. "ꝋ" & "r" were once both written as "r". "ȣ" & "w" were once both written as "w".

 2.1.1. Vowels
SoundLetter
/ɛ/e
/ʊ/ȣ1
/e/є
/o/o
/ʌ/ʌ
/ʏ/ʏ
/ɞ/
/a/a
/æ/æ
/i/i
/u/u


 2.1.2. Consonants
SoundLetter
/ʎ/ʎ
/ɹ/r
/w/w
/l/l
/n/n
/ŋ/ŋ
/ɸ/φ
/s/s
/ʃ/ſ
/h/h
/ʒ/j
/ɣ/g
/ɭ̝̌/ð
/p/p
/t/d
/k/k
/ʔ/ɂ2

  1this letter is written around x height when handwritten, similar to other vowels
  2this letter is written with a descender when handwritten

 2.1.3. Notes
  the letter ⟨d⟩ is pronounced /t/ when the first letter in a word and /ɾ/ most everywhere else
  the letter ⟨ð⟩ is unvoiced



2.2. Script

 2.2.1. Main Letters
  The main letters include all vowels as well as ⟨ʎ⟩, ⟨l⟩, ⟨n⟩, ⟨ŋ⟩, ⟨s⟩, ⟨ſ⟩, ⟨h⟩, ⟨j⟩, ⟨φ⟩, ⟨g⟩, ⟨ð⟩
  ⟨w⟩ and ⟨ȣ⟩ are both written with the character  w
  ⟨r⟩ and ⟨ꝋ⟩ are both written with the character  r
  All of the main letters have approximately the same width and features extend to five standard vertical
  
ee
ȣȣ
єє
oo
ʌʌ
ʏʏ
aa
ææ
ii
ʎʎ
rr
ww
ll
nn
ŋŋ
φf
ss
ſſ
hh
jj
gg
ðð


 2.2.2. Stop Markings
  The letters ⟨p⟩, ⟨d⟩, ⟨k⟩ and ⟨ɂ⟩ are written with the markings p d k ɂ respectively, around the letter they precede

 2.2.3. Block Text
  Block text is usually written boustrophedon style "as the ox plows."

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