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Yohkamish [YHM]
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Typology Progressing 1,503 words
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Yohkamish
Yoqaȟmi
[joqaxmi]*
Registered by [Deactivated User] on 3 September 2023
Language type A posteriori
Place & SpeakersYohkamish is spoken by a population of around 4,000 in Northeast Canada.
Species Human/humanoid
About Yohkamish An indigenous language isolate spoken by the Manitoba Band of Yohkam Indians, also known by their endonym, Yoqaȟmi. Despite being seemingly unrelated to the nearby Algonquian and Eskaleut language families, there are nevertheless some phonological similarities as well as borrowings from both families. Grammar is polysynthetic and agglutinating, though some fusion occurs at morpheme boundaries.

UNDERGOING RECONSTRUCTION, MOST TRANSLATIONS ARE OUT OF DATE
Sample of Yohkamish[view] Mąą́psúkekóo, yapȟo úmekšą́ąnérǫǫ́lą? Múnayalą? Múblǫǫ́ɫqwalą? Múȟútɫ, múpaáki, múyuyąą́lą? Moȟąboȟmičeɫkwapȟa ta moȟąjúhinawékȟǫǫ́sqaȟéwiɫkwapȟa šeéwóoškweɫkwalą? Jihąyú. Yoȟné tiléšqatą́šqwikwo motąyuksirǫǫ́me. Óyakwáaȟni. Nanáročókš. Huȟéw.[view all texts]
Latest vocabulary
nanárotnmetal
tą́šqwikwonprivilege
Phonology
ConsonantsBilabialAlveolarPost-
Alveolar
RetroflexPalatalLabio-
velar
VelarUvularGlottal
Nasal m n              
Plosive p b t [d]1         k kʷ [g]2 q qʷ  
Fricative   s sʷ [z]3 ʃ ʃʷ ʒ4       x xʷ   h
Affricate   t͡s t͡ʃ d͡ʒ            
Lateral approximant   l              
Lateral fricative   ɬ              
Approximant   ɹ   [ɻ]5 j w      
Trill   [r]6              
  1. Intervocalic , allophone of /t/
  2. Intervocalic, allophone of /k/
  3. Intervocalic, allophone of /s/
  4. Surface realization of [d͡ʒ] + [j]
  5. Word-initial, allophone of /ɹ/
  6. Word-final, allophone of /ɹ/
VowelsFrontBack
Close i í u ú
Close-mid e é o õ ṍ ó
Open a ã ã́ á  
Orthography
Below is the orthography for Yohkamish. This includes all graphemes as defined in the language's phonology settings - excluding the non-distinct graphemes/polygraphs.
 YohkamishOrthography [edit]
Ąą/ã/Aa/a/Ą́ ą́/ã́/Á á/á/Bb/b/Čč/t͡ʃ/Ee/e/É é/é/Hh/h/Ȟȟ/x/
ȞW ȟw/xʷ/Ii/i/Í í/í/Jj/d͡ʒ/Kk/k/KW kw/kʷ/Ll/l/Mm/m/Nn/n/Oo/o/
Óó/ó/Ǫǫ/õ/Ǫ́ ǫ́/ṍ/Pp/p/Qq/q/QW qw/qʷ/Rr/ɹ/Ss/s/Šš/ʃ/ŠW šw/ʃʷ/
SW sw/sʷ/Tt/t/TS ts/t͡s/Uu/u/Ú ú/ú/Ww/w/Yy/j/Ɫɫ/ɬ/
✖ Unknown alphabetical order [change]
    Latest 8 related articles listed below.
    Fusionality in Yoqaȟmi
    A brief overview of fusional phonotactics in Yohkamish
    29-Feb-24 00:36
    Typological information for Yohkamish

    Morphological typologyPolysynthetic
    Morphosyntactic alignmentNominative/Accusative
    Verb agreementAll three (subject + objects)

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