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Morphological derivation in Tandi
This public article was written by [Deactivated User], and last updated on 2 Nov 2017, 23:20.

[Public] ? ?
3. Names ? ?
4. Nouns ? ?
5. Numerals ? ?
6. Pronouns ? ?
7. Verbs ? ?
Menu 1. Prefixes 2. Suffixes  Tandi has a highly productive system of derivation using affixes. Most affixes are prefixes, though there are some suffixes. Additionally, some verbs can be converted directly to nouns, and some nouns directly to verbs, when the meaning is obvious (and none of the derivational affixes are sufficient).
[edit] [top]Prefixes

Semantic ChangePart of SpeechExample or ExplanationPrefix
malenoun → samewaiter: male waiter; actor: male actorrär-
femalenoun → samewaiter: waitress; actor: actressfas-
both sexes togethernoun → sametuð-
relation by marriagenoun → samebrother: brother-in-law; father: father-in-law; friend: friend of one’s spousepes-
formernoun → samehusband: ex-husband; musician: ex-musicianmol-
antonym/opposite (of binary concepts)noun/verb/adjective/adverb → sameup: down; long: short; large: small; clockwise: counterclockwise; follow: precedejød-
aroundverb/adjective(/noun) → sameamble: circumabulatewyr-
through or viaverb/adjective(/noun) → samepro-øn-
acrossverb/adjective(/noun) → sameoceanic: trans-oceanicþuut-
reflexive (reduces valency)verb → sameto kick: to kick oneselfprø-
reciprocal (reduces valency)verb → sameto kick: to kick each other/one anotherkyr-
in, at, or onverb → samebeš-
into, to, or ontoverb → sameneir-
out, from, or off ofverb → sameluš-
negative/non-noun/adjective → samecorrect: incorrect; human: non-human; happy: unhappykiv-
interrogative (question)noun/verb/adjective/adverb → sameum-
pejorative (negative affect or poor opinion of object or action)noun/verb → samehouse: hovel; to write: to scrawl; weather: bad weather; person: scoundrel; word: profane word; mind: foul mindgøþ-
laudative (positive affect or good opinion of object or action)noun/verb → sameto write: to script (i.e. to write calligraphy); weather: good weather; person: gentleperson (i.e. gentleman)bas-
affectionate (affectionate affect or opinion of a noun, usually a person)noun → samepris-
respectative (respectful affect or opinion of a noun, usually a person)noun → samedav-
intensifiernoun/verb/adjective/adverb → samekom-
one of somethingnoun/verb/adjective/adverb → samelike English “mono-“ or “uni-“har-
two of somethingnoun/verb/adjective/adverb → samelike English “du-“ or “bi-“kar-
three of somethingnoun/verb/adjective/adverb → samelike English “tri-“friar-
four of somethingnoun/verb/adjective/adverb → samelike English “quadri-“bryr-
five of somethingnoun/verb/adjective/adverb → sameplir-
six of somethingnoun/verb/adjective/adverb → sametjor-
seven of somethingnoun/verb/adjective/adverb → samefrør
eight of somethingnoun/verb/adjective/adverb → sameprar-
nine of somethingnoun/verb/adjective/adverb → sameteur-
ten of somethingnoun/verb/adjective/adverb → samežur-
eleven of somethingnoun/verb/adjective/adverb → samežuhar-
one hundred of somethingnoun/verb/adjective/adverb → samehiker-
multiple/many of somethingnoun/verb/adjective/adverb → samelike English “poly-“ or “multi-“iar-
both of somethingnoun/verb/adjective/adverb → samedexterous: ambidextrousnäde-
togethernoun/verb/adjective/adverb → sameto write: to co-writevat-
sudden or momentary actionverb → sameto light/shine: to flashsul-
accusative (increased transitivity)verb → sameto rain: to water [plants]; to die: to kill; to have: to give; to heal (intransitive): to heal (transitive)kaž-
incorrectly, awryverb → sameto place: to misplace; to accuse: to wrongly accuse; to understand: to misunderstandgut-
over againverb → sameto send: to resend; to build: to rebuildheš-
back againverb → sameto send: to send back; to light/shine: to reflectlir-
reversing an actionverb → sameto do: to undoker-
to make into/cause to becomeadjective → verbknowledgeable: to teach; rational: rationalizeez-il
a productnoun → samenovelty: news; cow: beefwit-
a member, follower, participant, or inhabitantnoun → same (animate)Christ: Christian; Marx: Marxist; America: American; family: family member; country: citizen; place: resident/inhabitantäyð-
a doctrine, system, or addictionnoun → same (abstract)Christian: Christianity; communist: communism; alcohol: alcoholismvyl-
a collective group without a specific numbernoun → sametree: forest; word: dictionary; human: humanity; person: crowd; person+pejorative: mob; book: library; house: city; animal: flock/herdral-
an abstractionnoun/adjective → noun (abstract)friend: friendship; father: fatherhood; happy: happiness; sad: sadness; healthy: healthiness; quick: quickness; girly: girlishnessnet-
a place where a noun is soldnoun → same (inanimate)book: bookstore; food: grocery storefud-
a leader or bossnoun → same (animate)school: principal; city: mayor; office: bosshäm-
an offspring or descendantnoun → same (animate)cat: kitten; king: prince; tree: sapling; person: child; duck: ducklingtir-
one characterized by an adjectiveadjective → noun (animate)youth: youth; holy: saint; near: neighborjuz-
full ofnoun → adjectivemountain: mountainous; muscle: muscular; pore: porous; money: rich; word: verbosezäl-
lackingnoun → adjectivemoney: moneyless/poor; tooth: toothless; water: waterless; light: darkdez-
pertaining tonoun → adjectivemind: mental; world: global; tree: arborealsääm-
made ofnoun → adjectivegold: golden; wood: woodenþad-
resemblingnoun → adjectivecat: catlike; mint: mintygul-
having a propensity or tendency of having a qualityadjective → samesad: depressedpus-

[edit] [top]Suffixes

Semantic ChangePart of SpeechExample or ExplanationSuffix
frequent, repeated, or continual actionverb → sameto shine: to shimmer; to spark: to sparkle-est[il]
separation, scatteringverb → sameto throw: to throw about/scatter; to give: to distribute; to break: to shatter-amp[il]
to use a noun in a typical waynoun → verbtongue: to taste; ear: to hear; eye: to see; nose: to smell; hand: to feel; lip: to kiss; hammer: to hammer-(o)nd[il]
a process or action that usually results in a nounnoun → verbsnow: to snow-(e)šk[il]
an instance of a verb, an action, a processverb → noun (abstract)to walk: (a) walk; to speak: (a) speech (i.e. to give a speech)-il -adro
a machinenoun/verb → noun (non-abstract)to write: typewriter; data: computer-il -(i)nko
a thing or substance which typically results from a verbverb → nounto sweat: sweat; to cry: tear; to lactate: milk-il -uga
a thing or substance to which a verb is typically doneverb → nounto eat: food/fodder; to think: thought-il -iza
an instrumentverb → noun (inanimate)to play: toy; to cut: knife; to help: remedy-il -ud
one who is currently the agent of a verbverb → noun (animate)to run: runner; to swim: swimmer; to sing: singer-il -ebo
one who is occupied with a verb habitually, as an amateur or professionalverb → noun (animate)to teach: teacher; to run: runner; to sing: singer; to swim: swimmer-(il) -age
one who is occupied with a noun habitually, as an amateur or professionalnoun → same (animate)tooth: dentist; music: musician; library: librarian-(a)ge
a place characterized by an actionverb → noun (inanimate)to learn: school; to sell: store; to judge: court; to cook: kitchen; to sleep: bedroom; to heal: hospital/clinic-il -ajad
a place characterized by a nounnoun → same (inanimate)book: library; dog: kennel-gyl
diminutivenoun → samehouse: hut; book: booklet; break: crack/fracture-jim
augmentativenoun → samehouse: mansion; book: tome; human: giant-woz
worthy ofverb → adjectiveto remember: memorable; to believe: credible; to trust: trustworthy-il -øbä
possibleverb → adjectiveto believe: believable; to see: visible-il -ipø
having a propensity or tendency of doing a verbverb → adjectiveto play: playful; to talk: talkative; to believe: credulous; to inflame: flammable-il -uða
the quality of having taken an actionverb → adjectiveto die: dead-il -efer
having a qualityadjective → adverbquick: quickly; sad: sadly; happy: happily; girly: girlily; duckish: duckishly-sy

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