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TAM verb suffixes
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The TAM suffixes found in Vambus.
This public article was written by DzêtaRedfang, and last updated on 2 Jan 2018, 21:09.

[comments] Menu 1. Introduction 2. Indicative 3. Imperative 4. Conditional 5. Subjunctive 6. Hypothetical
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This article has been marked as out of date. There's a possibility that some information is incorrect.
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Here we go. It's time for the big article, so without further ado...cue the sparkles...let's get started!

[top]Introduction


So, when counted, there are 705 TAM (tense-aspect-mood) suffixes in Vambus, and they agree with the subject on number and person (making verbs the second of the only two POS that convey number in speech). There are 5 Personnal moods (Indicative, Imperative, Conditional, Subjunctive, and Hypothetical) and 3 Impersonnal moods (Infinitive, Participle and Gerund [although this one's name may be slightly innacurate¸]).

Likewise, there is a maximum of 8 tense-aspects, those being: Past distant, Past (Perfect), Imperfect, Pluperfect, Past Near, Present, Future Anterior, and Future. Not all of these are present for all moods (which will be discussed per mood), and all verb classes have their own unique conjugations, with the exception of the Future tenses in the AL and ÈL verbs, as well as the 1S Past Near, and the 1S Past (perfect) in the Group 1 verb conjugations. An explanation of these verb classes and groups can be found here.

It would also be useful to note at this time that the 5th person pronoun is used alongside the 3rd person conjugation, and the Internal person pronoun can be used with any of the people depending on your intent...you might be considered a little cooky if speaking with the 3rd person though, as it implies there are at least 3 people in your body, and that can lead to some awkward moments if overheard.

Let's begin:

[top]Indicative


The Indicative is, as with most languages, the most important mood, as it denotes realis actions (a.k.a. actions that really happened, or will happen, without a doubt). Pretty much all other moods are made off of the trends apparent in the Indicative. It conjugates for 3 persons, singular and plural, and all 8 tenses. Let's start with the Present:

Present
Ah...The present tense. Where everything, usually, comes back too. Okay, so the Indicative present shows the main trends that'll appear throughout the rest of the article, and so I'm going to lay then out in a few tables for you all. Just remember that rule about the inherent vowel, as it affects all instances of "a" that you'll see in the Group 1 table.

Group 1:
1S1P2S2P3S3P
PRES-a-avu-as-avon-ak-avân


OL Class:
1S1P2S2P3S3P
PRES-0*-u-os-on-o-ân


UL Class:
3S**
PRES-u


*- "0" refers to there it being a "zero derivation"Can anyone reading this please tell me if it's the correct term?. It basically means that only the verb's root is used, without an additional suffix.

**- I mark it as being 3S, but really it would be more acccurate to consider it as 5th person, as the UL class is the verbs that require a dummy pronoun like "it rains" when there really isn't anyone raining (hence why no pronoun is used for this class)


Past Near:
So, the Past Near is probably the second most used tense in conversation, and depending on the action being described, it can range from immediate past to around 2 days prior. It is usually accompanied by a preceding statement of when it happened relative to the current time, but if not, it is generally within the pastt 24 hours.

Same thing as before, the "definer" is the "è" for this tense's singular, and the "-as-" for it's plural (every tense has something that generally defines it):

Group 1:
1S1P2S2P3S3P
PNEA-asu-asè-ason-akè-asân


For the OL Class, the definer is the use of "-û(s)-" instead of "-o-":

OL Class:
1S1P2S2P3S3P
PNEA-ûsi-ûs-ûson-ûso-ûsân


It would be useful to know at this point in time that usually when an "û" or an "u" at the start of a suffix is followed by a final "u", the last "u" unrounds to "i".

UL Class:
3S
PNEA-ûi


Past (perfect):
Commonly used, and relatively easy to remember. It's used for completed past actions with a definitive start and end time (cf. "j'ai mangé" and "je mangeais" in French). For Group 1, it's based on the "é" for singular, with "-év- being the plural denoter:

Group 1:
1S1P2S2P3S3P
PAST-évu-asé-évon-aké-évân


"Group 2", in other words the OL and UL classes, are based on "-or-", with the inherent vowel changing as usual. It would be good to remember at this time that UL suffixes are usually similar to the OL's 3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
endings.

OL Class:
1S1P2S2P3S3P
PAST-or-oru-ors-oron-oro-orân


UL Class:
3S
PAST-uro


Past Distant:
This is the last degree of remotness, and depending on the activity, it can denote any action done before 6 months to 10 years into the past. In litterature, it is generally used for actions 2-5 years or more in the past, but colloquially, actions like eating six months in the past can be described with it too. It is usually accompanied by a statement of how long ago it happened.

The Group 1 verbs use "-até-" as base for the singular, and "-at-" for the plural. Group 2 uses "-ot-", with the exeption of the 2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
, because /ts̪/ doesn't exist in the language, making it voice to /d͡z̪/ (written "j"):

Group 1:
1S1P2S2P3S3P
PDIS-até-atu-atés-aton-aték-atân


OL Class:
1S1P2S2P3S3P
PDIS-ot-otu-oj-oton-oto-otân


UL Class:
3S
PDIS-uto


Imperfect:
And here we get into the first instance of tense-aspect in Vambus. So, much like French, Spanish (I'm pretty sure), and several other languages, the Imperfect tense is really a mix of the Imperfect aspect and the Past tense, and is used to denote past actions that have no definite start or end points. That's about the best explanation I can give in English without saying to go look it up yourselves, as it is a concept that's WAY easier to express in French (as it's a language that utilises the concept). Just compare the sentences "Je mangeais" and "J'ai mangé" in French, and your all good(The first one is the Imperfect). They roughly translate to "I was eating" and "I ate".

The definer for Group 1 is "-ar-", with "-ok-" for Group 2. Do note that 2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
becomes "-ox" (which is pronounced /ok͡s̪/.

Group 1:
1S1P2S2P3S3P
IPRF-ar-aru-ars-aron-ark-arân


OL Class:
1S1P2S2P3S3P
IPRF-ok-oku-ox-okon-oko-okân


UL Class:
3S
IPRF-uko


Pluperfect:
The first relative tense that we'll be exploring in  Atruozan is the pluperfect (called "futur-in-the-past" by some). It is used to speak of an action in the past from the viewpoint of a previous action. An example in English would be: "I knew that we would win the game". It is also the last of the 5 past "tenses".

The Group 1 definer is "-ara-" for the singular, and "-ér-" for the plural. Group 2 uses "-ûk-".

Group 1:
1S1P2S2P3S3P
PLUP-ara-éru-aras-éron-arak-érân


OL Class:
1S1P2S2P3S3P
PLUP-ûk-ûki-ûx-ûkon-ûko-ûkân


UL Class:
3S
PLUP-ûki


Future:
Whew, still therePlease say yes? Good, let's get started on the futur tense. No need for explanations here on what it is, so just know that for the AL and ÈL Classes (of Group 1), the Future tenses are formed with "i" as the base vowel, and the IL Class (also from Group 1) is formed with "u" as base instead.

So, the AL and ÈL Classes (Group 1.1 for simplicity) use "-i-" as the base for the future tense, the IL Class uses "u" and contains the few instances of the "'u' unrounds to 'i' after 'û' or 'u'" rule, with the 1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
keeping the roundedness when intact.

Group 1.1
1S1P2S2P3S3P
FT-i-ivu-isi-ivon-iki-ivân


IL Class:
1S1P2S2P3S3P
FT-u-uvu-usi-uvon-uki-uvân


OL Class bases itself around "-ȯ(s)-" with the exeption of the 3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
which uses "-ȯyo" (change the inherent vowel on this, and you get the UL Class Future tense):

OL Class:
1S1P2S2P3S3P
FT-ȯsu-ȯs-ȯson-ȯyo-ȯsân


UL Class:
3S
FT-uyo


Future Anterior:
Last one to get through, so let's go. Okay, so can anyone guess what this relative tense means? Yes, you in the back with your hand politely raised. Do you have the answer? A tense describing a future action from the standpoint of an even further in the future action that's also sometimes refered to as "past-in-the-future"? CORRECT! TWO POINTS TO GRYFFINDOR! In all seriousness though, that's what it means, so let's get started.

The Group 1.1's definer is "-ir-", IL Class is "-ur-". OL Class uses "-ȯt-" for everything but the 2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
and 3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
, in which case it's based on "-ȯk-" (meaning the k>x in the 2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
occurs).

Group 1.1
1S1P2S2P3S3P
FANT-ir-iru-irs-iron-irk-irân


IL Class:
1S1P2S2P3S3P
FANT-ur-uru-urs-uron-urk-urân


OL Class:
1S1P2S2P3S3P
FANT-ȯt-ȯtu-ȯx-ȯton-ȯko-ȯtân


UL Class:
3S
FANT-uti


[top]Imperative


Must I really explain this? Hey, you'll do WHAT to me if I don't explain it...okay then...please don't kill me. Hello people, and welcome to the Imperative section! The Imperative referrs to the mood for dishing out orders, and requires the employement of the Imperative personal pronoun as well.

An important thing to note is that the Imperative is formed by adding suffixes onto the Infinitive root, so everything before the "l" (al, èl, il, ol, ul) is whatever class it belongs to. Also, there is a fun little thing that happens in speech, and it is marked in writing through the use of the exclamative punctuation marker in an Imperative sentence : in speech, before an Imperatives sentence, a high pitched shreek is produced that lasts little more than a second and sounds like a really high-pitched /i/ sound (the sound the vampires produce for echolocation). All non-vampires have either developped the ability to produce this bat-like shreek, or just make a high pitched /i/ to compensate. If it's not used, then the order becomes more suggestive/weaker/a less "vital" order, and becomes a "highly recommended, urgent, commanding suggestion". A normal, potentially desirative, suggestion is made using the Subjunctive mood with the Imperative pronoun (more on this later). The third person jussive order/command/desire is also going to be made with the Subjunctive.

It only has two tenses and 4 persons, so let's get going with them:

Present:
As straightforward as it gets, it's used when X is ordering X. No need to explain peculiarities, the "a" in the Group 1,2 (includes OL Class) conjugations represents the inherent vowel.

Group 1.2:
1P112S2P
PRES-alu-ala-als-alon


UL Class:
3S
PRES-ulu


Future Anterior:
This is employed when telling someone to get an action done before/by a certain time. It is ALWAYS accompagnied by the preceding "adverbial"(not sure if this is the right word) time marker phrase introduced by the word equivalent to "before".

Group 1 is basically the Present + final /t/, but as syllable final /s̪t̪/ doesn't exist, it resolves to /d͡z̪/ (written as "j"). The OL Class merely changes intial "o" to "ȯ". UL Class changes final "u" to "o":

Group 1:
1P112S2P
PRES-alut-alat-alj-alont


OL Class:
1P112S2P
PRES-ȯlu-ȯlo-ȯls-ȯlon


UL Class:
3S
PRES-ulo


[top]Conditional


Okay, so the conditional expresses a "realis" condition in  Atruozan. By this, I mean that if it's used for the Future tense, it refers to something that has no or little chance of being speculation (or Hypothetical). It takes no additional word to denote it's mood (such as "if", "then") and is employed in both the protasis and the apodosis of the sentence/clause. The two clauses (protasis and apodosis) are separated with the mid-line punctuation marker more or less equivalent to the comma.

It is, as a general rule, formed by the addition of "ap-" to the start of the Group 1 Indicative suffixes (as always, "a" stands for the inferent vowel, which remains "i" for the IL Class). The OL Class takes the inherent vowel as "ȯ" in the Future tense. Also note that the Past Conditional is related to the Imperfect Indicative. The Present tense also behaves like the OL Class.

There are 4 Tenses, so let's go:

Present:
Simple. As always, it refers to an action (and in this instance, condition) taking place in the present. Sometimes only the protasis or apodosis is in the present, as a way to denote a condition that will be fulfilled in the future, or that a past action, if occured, will have it's condition met in the present.

Group 1.2:
1S1P2S2P3S3P
PRES-ap-apu-apas-apon-apa-apân


UL Class:
3S
PRES-up


Past:
The past is used for any past time not considered Past Distant. It will be used in the protasis and apodosis if speaking about a past condition, or in the protasis only if speaking about the apodosis occuring due if the condition was met in the past (like in the sentence : "If you had won, we would be celebrating").

The conjugations are, once again, related to the Imperfect Indicative, not the Past (perfect) Indicative (except for the UL Class).

Group 1:
1S1P2S2P3S3P
PAST-apar-aparu-apars-aparon-apark-aparân


OL Class:
1S1P2S2P3S3P
PAST-opok-opoku-opox-opokon-opoko-opokân


UL Class:
3S
PAST-upi


Past Distant
Same thing as the past, just for events considered to be in the "distant past". Related to the PDISDistant past (tense)
events which occurred a long time ago
.INDIndicative mood (mood)
a common form of realis
.

Group 1:
1S1P2S2P3S3P
PDIS-apat-apatu-apatés-apaton-apaté-apatân


OL Class:
1S1P2S2P3S3P
PDIS-opot-opotu-opoj-opoton-opoto-opotân


UL Class:
3S
PDIS-uput


Future:
The Future Conditional is used to express a condition that will, depending on whether the tense is employed in the apodosis or both it and the protasis, be used to speak about a condition whose apodosis will be seen out in the future based on a present or past event, or will be seen out in the future based on a future condition that was achieved (respectively). It is important to remember that it must be nearly certain that the apodosis will occur without a doubt if the condition is met, otherwise the Hypothetical Future mood-tense is used with the conditional marker "o" preceding the protasis.

Group 1.1:
1S1P2S2P3S3P
FT-api-apivu-apis-apivon-apik-apivân


IL Class:
1S1P2S2P3S3P
FT-ipur-ipuvu-ipus-ipuvon-ipuk-ipuvân


The OL Class simply changes the first "o" from the Present with "ȯ".

OL Class:
1S1P2S2P3S3P
FT-ȯp-ȯpu-ȯpos-ȯpon-ȯpo-ȯpân


UL Class:
3S
FT-upo


[top]Subjunctive


The Subjunctive is complicated to explain the concept behind, so if you, as the reader, don't understand it, read up on it here. Understand it now? Ok, good. Let's get on with explaining what it's uses are in  Atruozan then.

The Subjunctive is employed for a fair number of uses, the most common being it's appearance within a relative clause (there are exceptions depending on the original verb that will be discussed in another article). It is also used to express a wish/desire (a.k.a the optative mood, but this is usually expressed through the use of the verb wish/desire in the subjunctive that's followed by either another verb in the infinitive, a relative clause, or an object), doubt/low possibility/likelihood of an action occuring, a low-imperativity suggestion/order, as well as in relative clauses following a verb of emotion (or a slot 11 adjective relating to emotions, but more on that here.

Present:

[top]Hypothetical


The Hypothetical has four main usages: marking a possible/unsure/undetermined conditional sentence (a.k.a. if either the result or the condition is speculative/"hypothetically speaking") and speaking about an event that is probable, but not occuring (cf. subjunctive), a hypothesis, and "hypothetically speaking". The first is structured the same as a conditional sentence, but with the addition of the conditional marker "o" immediately before the protasis. The last two/three are worded exactly the same as in the Indicative, and has all 8 tenses that it has, the difference being the TAM suffixes (the second can also occasionally appear in relative clauses).

The difference between the Hypothetical, the Subjunctive, and the Indicative (when outside the Hypothetical's conditional usage) is that the Indicative is employed when confidence in the realis of the situation being expressed by the verb is around 90% or more. The Hypothetical, unless using it for a "Hypothetically speaking" situation or a hypothesis, is used for confidence the realis of a situation of roughly 60-90%. Anything below that employs the Subjunctive, because the possibility of it's occurence is seen as doubtful. This three-way split concept takes some getting used to by foreign learners of the language.

The tenses would be used as they normally would if using another mood in that situation, plus the extra variety offered by the other tenses present. It's generally constructed from "af-" being added on to the Indicative suffix, but this is just loosely.

Present:
The present is made quite easily, so here they are:

Group 1:
1S1P2S2P3S3P
PRES-af-afu-afas-afon-afak-afân
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