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Växárai Grammar
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An overview of Växárai grammar.
This public article was written by Camera244, and last updated on 5 Dec 2018, 08:08.

[comments] Menu 1. 動詞 - Dúngvi/Movement Words/Verbs 2. 動虛 - Dúngho/Movement Empty/Derivation 3. 動次 - Dúngfii/Movement Instance/Pluractional 4. 動使 - Dúngxi/Movement Cause/Applied Object 5. 動具 - Dúnggoo/Movement Implement/Indirect Object 6. 動直 - Dúngdik/Movement Straight/Direct Object 7. 動本 - Dúngpun/Movement Root/Verb Root 8. 動對 - Dúngtiia/Movement Contrapose/Direct-Inverse 9. 動見 - Dúngken/Movement See/Voice 10. 動副 - Dúngpho/Movement Auxiliary/Adverbial 11. 動重 - Dúngdong/Movement Repeat/Frequentative 12. 動計 - Dúngke/Movement Appraise/Diminutive-Intensive 13. 動習 - Düviip/Movement Habit/Habitual 14. 動能 - Dúngnong/Movement Ability/Ability 15. 動聞 - Dúngmun/Movement Hearsay/Evidential 16. 動信 - Dúngsin/Movement Faith/Dubitative 17. 動可 - Dúngkha/Movement Permission/Modal 18. 動方 - Dúngpong/Movement Direction/Directional 19. 動態 - Dúngthoi/Movement Manner/Aspect 20. 動連 - Dúngren/Movement Connect/Converb 21. 實詞 - Viitvi/Solid Words/Nouns 22. 禮詞 - Révi/Propriety Words/Honourifics 23. 距詞 - Góvi/Distance From Words/Demonstrative-Articles 24. 數詞 - Shoovi/Number Words/Numerals 25. 陽闡詞 - Yángfengvi/Yang Expounding Words/Animate Noun-Adjective Declensions 26. 陰闡詞 - Ywímfengvi/Yin Expounding Words/Inanimate Noun-Adjective Declensions 27. 上虛詞 - Vánghovi/Upper Empty Words/Derivations 28. 下虛詞 - Whaahovi/Lower Empty Words/Classifiers 29. 齟齬詞 - Vóngovi/Misaligned Teeth Words/Irregular Classifiers 30. 形詞 - Héngvi/Shape Words/Adjectives 31. 主詞 - Yhoovi/Master Words/Possessives 32. 唐虛詞 - Dánghovi/Tang Empty Words/Sentence Particles 33. 萬倫 - Múnrun/Ten-Thousand Relationships/Ontological Hierarchy 34. 代詞 - Dóivi/Replacement Words/Subject Pronouns 35. Sentence Types
?FYI...
This article is a work in progress! Check back later in case any changes have occurred.

[top]動詞 - Dúngvi/Movement Words/Verbs

Verbs are the most important part of Växárai grammar, agreeing with the subject and objects and marking for tense, aspect, mood, and voice. Prefixes are unaffected by vowel harmony and generally have an inanimate/animate split, and suffixes are affected. The default state of a verb is usually that of volition. The dictionary forms of pronomial affixes are mostly singular third person obviative.
NameSlotDescription
動虛/dúnghoderivationnegation, volition etc.
動次/dúngfiipluractionalquantifiable repetition
動使/dúngxiapplied objectslot for pronomial
動具/dúnggooindirect objectslot for pronomial
動直/dúngdikdirect objectslot for pronomial
動本/dúngpunrootthe verb root
動對/dúngtiiadirect-inversewhen the agent outranks or is outranked by the patient
動見/dúngkenvoiceother grammatical voices
動副/dúngphoadverbialfunctions as adverb
動重/dúngdongfrequentativegeneral repetition of actions
動計/dúngkediminutive-intensivestrength of a verb
動習/düviiphabitualdenoting habit
動能/dúngnongabilityability to act
動聞/dúngmunevidentialsource of information
動信/dúngsindubitativetrustworthiness or doubt
動可/dúngkhamodalother grammatical moods
動方/dúngpongdirectionalindicates absolute cardinal direction as well as orientation
動態/dúngthoiaspecthow an action extends over time; usually Old Chinese loan-particles
動連/dúngrenconverbforms for coordination and subordination


[top]動虛 - Dúngho/Movement Empty/Derivation

See the noun section.

[top]動次 - Dúngfii/Movement Instance/Pluractional

The cardinal numerals are used to indicate the quantifiable amount of subjects performing the action, while the distributive numerals are used to indicate the amount of objects being acted on. The slot is left blank if the number is unimportant or singular. The pluractional slot tends to agree with the subject more often.

[top]動使 - Dúngxi/Movement Cause/Applied Object

The system for writing cases and pronomials with radicals (部書法 - Büyhóbap/portioned writing method) predates the adoption of Hangul and Manchu and persists to this day. The object radical goes on top, the case radical next, and the number radical at the bottom. This slot can be occupied by a pronomial prefix or a classifier. The slot is used when the verb has an applicative voice and has more objects than indirect and direct. The pronomials agree with gender, number, and person. Multiple applied objects can fit this slot, with contrasting obviation to differentiate between them.
⿳⼧幺 - Singular冂 - Dual厽 - Trial⽻ - Plural
⽬ - First Person Inclusive (AN) vevifemvee
⾎ - First Person Exclusive (AN) vimfiievem
⼯ - Second Person (AN) siseiximsii
⼰ - Third Person Proximative (AN) yiyeeyimyii
⾥ - Third Person Obviative (AN) yayaiyhayhe

⿳⼧幺 - Singular冂 - Dual厽 - Trial⽻ - Plural
⼰ - Third Person Proximative (INAN) yuyooyumyuu
⾥ - Third Person Obviative (INAN) kakaokhakhe


[top]動具 - Dúnggoo/Movement Implement/Indirect Object

This slot can be occupied by a pronomial prefix or a classifier. The slot is used when the verb has an indirect object, especially by any of the noun cases. The pronomials agree with gender, number, and person.
⿳⽳幺 - Singular冂 - Dual厽 - Trial⽻ - Plural
⽬ - First Person Inclusive (AN) eiewaeya
⾎ - First Person Exclusive (AN) iwaeyeewe
⼯ - Second Person (AN) sieiwaya
⼰ - Third Person Proximative (AN) iyewiyi
⾥ - Third Person Obviative (AN) aaihahe

⿳⽳幺 - Singular冂 - Dual厽 - Trial⽻ - Plural
⼰ - Third Person Proximative (INAN) uyowuyu
⾥ - Third Person Obviative (INAN) aaohahe


[top]動直 - Dúngdik/Movement Straight/Direct Object

This slot can be occupied by a pronomial prefix or a classifier. The slot is used when the verb has a direct object. The pronomials agree with gender, number, and person.
⿳爫幺 - Singular冂 - Dual厽 - Trial⽻ - Plural
⽬ - First Person Inclusive (AN) nenimemee
⾎ - First Person Exclusive (AN) nimmhemem
⼯ - Second Person (AN) hiheimimmii
⼰ - Third Person Proximative (AN) nineimiywi
⾥ - Third Person Obviative (AN) nanaimame

⿳爫幺 - Singular冂 - Dual厽 - Trial⽻ - Plural
⼰ - Third Person Proximative (INAN) nunoumuywu
⾥ - Third Person Obviative (INAN) nanaomamo


[top]動本 - Dúngpun/Movement Root/Verb Root

Verb roots have arbitrary gender based on their vowel harmony. New roots can be created through derivations or noun incorporation (prefixing). There are four types of noun incorporation: Scope, Promotion, Establishing, and Classification. Scope prefixes a related noun to narrow the scope of the verb (no effect on valence). Promotion promotes a former oblique argument to subject or direct object status by incorporating the former subject or direct object of a verb (an agent cannot be incorporated). This is used to maintain the closest hierarchical argument as the subject; promotion is often used productively on verb roots that usually have inanimate subjects. Establishing is used in discourse when a previously established standalone noun is mentioned again, placing the noun in any of the previous argument slots; it is not productive. Classification is similar except it makes use of semantically broad classifiers in place of the previously mentioned noun and can be used productively.

[top]動對 - Dúngtiia/Movement Contrapose/Direct-Inverse

This slot changes depending on whether the agent outranks the patient (Direct) or the patient outranks the agent (Inverse). This functions as the verb stem; the direct marking is the dictionary form of a verb. The direct stem is -am and the inverse stem is -aa. Naturally a hiatus will be inserted if the verb root has the same vowel type. The direct stem is taken when there is a reciprocal construction, with the higher ranking argument placed in the subject slot.

[top]動見 - Dúngken/Movement See/Voice

This slot marks the grammatical voice, which has rough correspondence to the nominal cases and some extra functions. The applicatives promote an oblique object to a direct object, increasing the valency by one. If there is a displaced object, it is placed in the applied object slot. Even if the displaced object is dropped, the applied object pronomial remains. The passive voice can be combined with the applicatives, with the passive voice suffixed onto the applicative.
SuffixCharacterVoiceFunction
finpassivethe subject is the patient; demotes subject to obviative indirect object and promotes direct object to subject (valency -1)
rinreflexivethe direct object is the same as the subject
pan𠷹reciprocalthe subject and direct object are both agent and patient simultaneously
yaobviative applicativepromotes an obviative indirect object to direct object (valency +1); general
ve𠰅dative applicativepromotes a dative indirect object to direct object (valency +1); recipient
yiinstrumental applicativepromotes an instrumental indirect object to direct object (valency +1); using something
sisociative/topical applicativepromotes a sociative indirect object to direct object (valency +1); along with something; regarding something
wheablative/aversive/locative applicativepromotes an ablative indirect object to direct object (valency +1); movement away from something; avoidance of something; a specific location/time
na𠮰delative/durative applicativepromotes a delative indirect object to direct object (valency +1); movement from the surface; duration of time
maelative/terminative applicativepromotes an elative indirect object to direct object (valency +1); out of something; end of an action
ka𠰮initiative/causative applicativepromotes an initiative indirect object to direct object (valency +1); the starting point of an action; cause of an action


[top]動副 - Dúngpho/Movement Auxiliary/Adverbial

This slot accepts adverbial suffixes. In literary usage derived adverbs can also be used.
SuffixCharacterAdverb
te𠮳excessively
ngi𠮴partially
yin𠱚completely
kii𠲣truly
ywesimilarly
tte𠮚exactly
nha𠯆reluctantly
mem𠰧obliged to by a higher ranking person
ri𠰼obliged to by societal norms
wha𠱀obliged to by material needs
sen𠰣general obligation


[top]動重 - Dúngdong/Movement Repeat/Frequentative

This slot accepts frequentative suffixes, which denote general repetition of actions. It is not to be confused with the habitual slot which implies an agent cause for the repetition.
SuffixCharacterFrequentative
nghi𠯲action is made up of multiple low frequency regular instances
nghen𠯭action is made up of multiple high frequency regular instances
thi𠰆action is made up of multiple low frequency erratic instances
thipa𠱁action is made up of multiple high frequency erratic instances
ppi𠮡action is performed in double instances
than𠯀action is performed in triple instances


[top]動計 - Dúngke/Movement Appraise/Diminutive-Intensive

This slot accepts diminutive-intensive suffixes, which denote the intensity of an action. Most affixes are borrowings from Old Chinese or Proto-Hmong-Mien; vowel harmony still applies.
SuffixCharacterDiminutive-Intensive
temcarefully; to the smallest degree
nhinlightly; with little intensity
kengfirmly; with inertia
agamvery; above average intensity
yhansupremely; to the highest positive degree
hangextremely; to the highest negative degree; blistering(intense heat)
nhayengwith focused intensity; suffocating intensity
nhepwith high initial intensity; cough-like


[top]動習 - Düviip/Movement Habit/Habitual

This slot accepts the habitual suffix -seri (), which denotes a habitual repetition of actions caused by an agent. It has a number of interactions with other slots that change its meaning and pronunciation. The compounds cannot be used in conjunction with their roots.
CompoundCharacterRootsFunction
yisi𠱚習/completely-habitualstative; ongoing but not evolving
hiphi𠮴咳習/partially-high initial intensive-habitualprospective; about to
kihi𠲣習/truly-habitualgnomic; general truth
kiire𠲣𠯲習/truly-regular low frequentative-habitualremote past tense; inevitably
theeri𠮚習/exactly-habitualfuture tense; inevitably
phari咳習/high initial intensive-habitualrecently; of great import
whari𠱀習/material obligation-habitualprogressive; ongoing and evolving
seni𠰣習/general obligation-habitualresumptive

Transitive verbs usually imply the logical conclusion of that verb (e.g. to listen includes responding rather than just hearing). To imply no response, the stative habitual is used.

[top]動能 - Dúngnong/Movement Ability/Ability

This slot accepts ability suffixes which denote ability to perform the action.
SuffixCharacterAbility
veable to
namable to with great effort
rengable to with help from another person
sakable to with help from a tool
femunable to


[top]動聞 - Dúngmun/Movement Hearsay/Evidential

This slot accepts evidential suffixes which denote the nature of the evidence supporting a statement. The first-hand evidential is the default unmarked evidential. The second-hand evidential suffix -mai (曰) marks information that was not personally observed or experienced by the speaker. It also is used as deflection of responsibility; e.g. 'I didn't say it, someone else did'. The third-hand evidential suffix -xi (曳) marks information that is far removed from the speaker.

[top]動信 - Dúngsin/Movement Faith/Dubitative

This slot accepts dubitative suffixes which denote the level of trust the speaker has in a statement.
SuffixCharacterDubitative
miifull confidence
xee𧥝 uncertain confidence
ngee𧥥dubious
singextremely dubious


[top]動可 - Dúngkha/Movement Permission/Modal

This slot accepts modal suffixes which denote any additional grammatical mood. The default unmarked mood is indicative.
SuffixCharacterMood
kkimimperative; direct commands, prohibitions, and requests
satpotential; likely to occur
riioptative; wish or hope
thiihypothetical; something that might have happened but did not


[top]動方 - Dúngpong/Movement Direction/Directional

This slot accepts directional suffixes which indicate cardinal direction along with general orientation. The directional suffix is optional. It usually matches the orientation of the subject. The general orientation suffixes can be suffixed onto the cardinal directions to modify them.
SuffixCharacterDirectional
yheneast
katsouth
rak西west
mheenorth
tiiaopposite orientation to subject
ari𡵒uphill
ine𡵝downhill


[top]動態 - Dúngthoi/Movement Manner/Aspect

This slot accepts aspect suffixes which denote how an action extends over time. The suffixes are usually particles from Old Chinese.
SuffixCharacterAspect
kaperfect; completed action with current relevance
pajust finished
adangmomentane; once in the past
siakearlier; contrast with the present
pangpast progressive/stative


[top]動連 - Dúngren/Movement Connect/Converb

This slot is used to affix converb suffixes, which change verbs into coordinating and subordinating adverbials (converbs: often with a temporal or spatial aspect). Converbs never end a sentence but are clauses in a larger grammatical structure. They also form relative clauses, which retain pluractional/pronomial/classifier agreement with the modified word. The head is gapped if the word is a subject and pronoun retained if anything else. In the accessibility hierarchy, relative clauses only can apply to subjects.
SuffixCharacterConverb
khimperfective; an action has been completed before the next one occurs (then)
tem𬽽imperfective; an action is happening simultaneously with the next (while)
tempe𪜽future imperfective; an action is incomplete but will be completed after the next action
mana𬾕continuative; an action is still happening (while; started before next action and will continue after)
vamconditional; action depends on a time or condition (when/if)
ree𠇯relative; modifies a noun


[top]實詞 - Viitvi/Solid Words/Nouns

Nouns have a specific order of modifiers that must always be followed. Proximative/Obviative case can be omitted if there is an article attached. Articles are archaic and only show up in very formal writing, fossilised idioms, and religious texts. An adjective can be prefixed by removing case agreement. If a noun is prefixed onto a verb, the sound change rules are applied twice and only the noun root is kept. Derivations forming verbs can circumvent this, but the case is still dropped. Noun incorporation affects a verb's valence.
The rule for compounding nouns is below:
禮 - Re/Honourific距 - Go/Demonstrative-Article形 - Heng/Attributive主 - Yhoo/Possessive數 - Shoo/Numeral上虛 - Vángho/Derivation實 - Viit/Noun Root下虛 - Whaaho/Classifier闡 - Feng/Case
⿰⺡심黍黍⿳⼤⽋幺⿰뗑⼘⿳⼤⾛厽

This is a general guideline, however some nouns are fused irregularly and the morphemes not easily recognisable.

[top]禮詞 - Révi/Propriety Words/Honourifics

This section refers to honourific prefixes that attach specifically to nouns, however the honourific system as a whole is more complicated. The affixes usually refer to objects that would be used by a certain caste. When referring to proper names several prefixes are also used, with most coming from Chinese. The distance system of classification is helpful in determining obviative distance within ontological hierarchy in a sentence. If a person has a title, that is used instead of an honourific. Below are the most commonly used honourifics.
HonourificComponentsDistanceFunctionPrevalence
vang-1any person high in rankvernacular
whaa+1any person low in rankvernacular
yhengkaa聖駕-4His Majesty; emperorcommon
vin-3subject; aristocrat castecommon
vi-2knight; warrior castecommon
kan-1magistrate; higher ranking official; gentry castecommon
ri0clerk; low ranking officialcommon
min+1serf caste; commonercommon
biie+2artisan castecommon
pee+3merchant castecommon
nu+4untouchable; slave castecommon
sen-1deceased personcommon
sen-1past things; e.g. the old daysliterary
senhen先賢-2deceased person who was highly regardedcommon
mong-1young or low ranking deceased personcommon
kii-1honourable thing related to addressee or high ranking personcommon
puu-2precious thingcommon
ara-1honourable tool; clean thingcommon
kke+1dishonourable tool; unclean thingcommon


[top]距詞 - Góvi/Distance From Words/Demonstrative-Articles

Växárai has three articles, the definite ka, indefinite ha, and interrogative ywha. Owing to Växárai's mostly literary nature, these articles have come to reflect the relative rank of their referents, meaning that certain deixis is used for referents of different rank. This only applies to animate referents however. They have undergone a considerable amount of fusion and suppletion such that their original roots are obscured. Demonstrative suffixes were attached to articles as they cannot stand alone. If there is no referent, the written form takes a dummy that is not pronounced. Usually verbal affixes are used instead, unless the referent is of particular emphasis or fossilised idioms are being used.

Proximal (-1 to -4)Medial (0 to 1)Distal (2 to 3)Hidden (4)
Definite
ka

kee

kin
𬒊
ppe
Indefinite 𡖇
ha

xing

hin
𫯒
he
Interrogative
ywha
𤣦
ree

ywhin

ywhe


[top]數詞 - Shoovi/Number Words/Numerals

Växárai uses a base-12 or duodecimal system with cardinal, ordinal, and distributive numbers. Numerals are transparent and don't affect vowel harmony if appended. The traditional Chinese numbering system is kept separate and only used for equations to the Chinese calendar and reading Chinese mathematical works. The origins of the ordinal and distributive numerals and suffixes is unknown and possibly from an ancient language substrate. The formal characters shown on the left are used when the numeral is affixed to a noun or verb.
NumberCardinalCharacterOrdinalCharacterDistributiveCharacterChineseCharacter
-xtiia對xtiiai於對xtiiasak對x分bo負x
0, 0sánsi蕶, 〇réni於零rénsak零分ren
1, 1too幺, 〡yái於幺, 弌yásak幺分it
2, 2saa貳, 〢kónoi於貳, 弍mánsak貳分nhii
3, 3whe參, 〣púi於參, 弎ósak參分sam
4, 4múri䦉, 〤maai於䦉rúsak䦉分sii
5, 5íkan伍, 㐱níni於伍vóngsak伍分ngu
6, 6song陸, 〥téi於陸xeesak陸分rok
7, 7mhan柒, 〦súnai於柒yhúsak柒分fiit
8, 8róso捌, 〧vái於捌woosak捌分piet
9, 9ása玖, 〨túbai於玖xínsak玖分ko
10, ↊sak拾, 〩yuui於拾kërísak拾分viip
11, ↋xuk餗, 𡗟khaai於餗wámsak餗分
12, 10ham嗑, 叶rooi於嗑hósak嗑分
24, 20yhíwa𠳬, 卄yhíwai於𠳬yhïwásak𠳬分
36, 30maat𠻰, 卅maatai於𠻰maatásak𠻰分
48, 40vúyo𠸈, 卌vúyoi於𠸈vüyósak𠸈分
100, 84piekpiekai於百piekásak百分piek
144, 100whangwhángi於佰whángsak佰分
288, 200áwhangáwhangi於皕äwhángsak皕分
1000, 6↋4fenféni於千fénsak千分fen
1728, 1000hóruhórui於仟hörúsak仟分
10000, 5954munmúni於萬múnsak萬分mun
20736, 10000phanpháni於贎phánsak贎分


[top]陽闡詞 - Yángfengvi/Yang Expounding Words/Animate Noun-Adjective Declensions

The system for writing cases with radicals (部書法 - Büyhóbap/portioned writing method) predates the adoption of Hangul and Manchu and persists to this day. The Inanimate/Animate radical goes on top, the case radical next, and the number radical at the bottom. The old native Vangxarai numbers for one, two, three, and many were subsumed into these case endings, with the current numbers borrowed from an unknown substrate. The apparent violation of phonotactics in standalone long vowels can be explained by elision, there is no hiatus.
⿳⼤幺 - Singular冂 - Dual厽 - Trial⽻ - Plural
⼰ - Proximative -e-ki-tha-ii
⾥ - Obviative -a-ke-me-ee
⼿ - Dative -ve-ven-men-vii
⾜ - Instrumental -i-vin-min-ving
⽊ - Sociative -si-sin-min-sing
⽋ - Genitive Alienable -nga-ngan-ngen-ngang
⾊ - Genitive Inalienable -he-hen-han-heng
⾛ - Ablative -whe-when-whan-wheng
⼮ - Delative -na-nan-nen-nang
⽕ - Elative -ma-man-men-mang
⽣ - Initiative -ka-kan-than-kang


[top]陰闡詞 - Ywímfengvi/Yin Expounding Words/Inanimate Noun-Adjective Declensions

⿳⾅幺 - Singular冂 - Dual厽 - Trial⽻ - Plural
⼰ - Proximative -o-ku-tha-uu
⾥ - Obviative -a-ko-mo-oo
⼿ - Dative -vo-von-mon-vuu
⾜ - Instrumental -u-vun-mun-vung
⽊ - Sociative -su-sun-mun-sung
⽋ - Genitive Alienable -nga-ngan-ngon-ngang
⾊ - Genitive Inalienable -ho-hon-han-hong
⾛ - Ablative -who-whon-whan-whong
⼮ - Delative -na-nan-non-nang
⽕ - Elative -ma-man-mon-mang
⽣ - Initiative -ka-kan-than-kang


[top]上虛詞 - Vánghovi/Upper Empty Words/Derivations

Derivations are like classifiers except they are prefixes and are derivational in function and a good amount are taken from Classical Chinese function words. They can only be attached to nouns and verbs. Chinese origin dervations do not have vowel harmony.

DerivationComponentsFunctionMeaningPrevalence
xa⿰⺅싸noun/verb→nounagentcommon
ma⿰⼥마noun/verb→nounpatientcommon
kim⿰⼥킴noun/verb→nounrecipientcommon
ra⿸⼚라noun→verbgeneral related actioncommon
sim⿰⺡심noun→adjectivehaving the properties ofcommon
pem⿰⺡펨adjective→nounsomething with these propertiescommon
yen⿰⽴젠verb→verbvolitioncommon
wim⿰⽴짋verb→verbno volitioncommon
ttim⿰弓틺verb→verbnevercommon
nhe⿰弓넿verb→verbnegativevernacular
khi⿰⽐끼verb→nounthe act ofcommon
hunoun→nounplacecommon
yhonoun→nounpluralisercommon
whennoun→nounon the Nounliterary
potnoun→nounnegativecommon
tiianoun→nounagainst; oppositecommon
hu/nhen乎/然noun→adverblike thusliterary
wheenoun→verbto do; to becomecommon
yinoun→verbto use; to purpose forcommon
nhenverb→verbindeed; intensifiercommon
overb→verborigin ofcommon
mot/po勿/不verb→verbnegativecommon
yotransitive verb→ditransitive verbto Verb X to Ycommon
xoverb→nounthat which you Verbcommon


[top]下虛詞 - Whaahovi/Lower Empty Words/Classifiers

Classifiers are suffixes that are split into abstract and concrete categories. They are mostly native and use 形朝字 (Héngfovi/Hanzi-Hangul combined script), unless they are borrowed from Chinese. Earlier texts use a number of different characters to represent their phonetic sound. They can be attached to numerals, determiners, and nouns. They also can be incorporated into verbs standalone as object referents.
ClassifierComponentsTypeFunctionPrevalence
hin⿷⼕힌concretegeneralvernacular
sa⿷⼕사concretean indeterminate amount of somethingvernacular
rin⿰⺅린concretehonoured personcommon
yhim⿰⺅침concretethrong; group of peoplecommon
pim⿹气핌concreteshort amount of time/distance; instantcommon
khin⿹气낀concretea breathliterary
i⿹气이abstractlanguageliterary
kkeng⿵⺇켉concretetable; flat surfacecommon
nan⿵⺇난concretesheetcommon
i⿵⺇이abstractpiece of informationcommon
i⿰⻖이concretemouth; personcommon
mhi⿰⻖밓concretemound of earth-like substance; packed moundcommon
xing⿰⻖씽concretemound of sheets; loose moundcommon
see⿰⻖셰abstractsacredliterary
xang⿰쌍⺉concretehandheld bladed objectcommon
fa⿰밯⺉concretetoolcommon
kkam⿰칾⺉abstractinsult; grievanceliterary
ttan⿰탆⺉abstractruinous eventliterary
ttan⿰⺯탆concretebrocade; bundle of clothcommon
vem⿰⺯벫concretepiece of clothing; outfitcommon
see⿰⺯셰abstractprayer flag; prayer; extreme petitionliterary
e⿰⺨에concretebeastcommon
ywee⿰⺨쪠concretestrap; switchcommon
ywee⿱⺮쪠concretepolecommon
heng⿱⺮헹concretecylinder; bottlecommon
ywee⿱⾅쪠concretepillar; beam; load-bearing objectcommon
xi⿰⻟씨concretemealcommon
me⿰⻟메concretebitecommon
see⿰⻟셰concreteofferingcommon
rem⿱⼧렘concretebuildingcommon
pem⿱⼧셰concretebasket; container of solidcommon
see⿱⼧셰concretehousehold idol; object of worshipliterary
yam⿶⼐잠concretejar; container of liquidcommon
xii⿰씌⼘concretebundle of stick-like objectscommon
theng⿰뗑⼘concretesheaf; bundle of cropscommon
van⿰⼸밙concretebow; warriorcommon
khem⿰⼸껨concretearrow; pointed stick-like objectcommon
theng⿱뗑⽥concretecropcommon
tti⿱팋⽥concreteseed; graincommon
thi⿰⺡띠concretedropcommon
ywhee⿰⺡쪻concretesplash; sprinklecommon
nghen⿰⺡겒concretebody of watercommon
i⿰⺡이concretedrink; sipcommon
ponconcretevolume; bookcommon
fiekconcretevolumes of bookscommon
dooconcreteincensecommon
kaconcretehouseholdcommon


[top]齟齬詞 - Vóngovi/Misaligned Teeth Words/Irregular Classifiers

Some classifiers are prefixes or circumfixes. Circumfixes are treated like prefixes in orthography. When incorporated into a verb, the circumfix combines into a single affix.
ClassifierComponentsMannerTypeFunctionPrevalence
ka-n⿴⼞칸circumfixabstractreal thing; worthy personcommon


[top]形詞 - Héngvi/Shape Words/Adjectives

Adjectives agree with the nouns they modify completely. The adjective stem usually consists of a classifier. They are usually treated as nouns. Uncompounded adjectives usually appear when referring to a pronoun in the verb or emphasising a particular aspect of a referent in the verb.
ClassifierComponentsFunction
a⿰⽐아neutral adjective
fa⿰⽐밯concrete comparative adjective
yha⿰⽐차abstract comparative adjective
tta⿰⽐탛concrete superlative adjective
wan⿰⽐잕abstract superlative adjective

Adjectives have a specific order which they must appear in, with concrete adjectives coming before abstract adjectives, and neutral adjectives occurring closest to the noun. The macro-order (including nouns and verbs) is as follows from farthest to closest:
  • relative clauses in order of least-most relevant
  • demonstrative
  • colour
  • size
  • shape
  • age
  • wealth
  • opinion
  • animacy/agency
  • possessives in order of least-most relevant
  • numerals in order of distributive-ordinal-cardinal


  • [top]主詞 - Yhoovi/Master Words/Possessives

    The possessives make use of the two genitive cases to signify a possessor. Partitive possession can occur if a numeral is affixed to the unpronounced inanimate dummy with genitive alienable case e.g. three of my friends. First person possessives can use the pronoun , while any other possessives must use nouns in the third person regardless, even if addressing someone directly.

    [top]唐虛詞 - Dánghovi/Tang Empty Words/Sentence Particles

    Further clarifies meaning of sentences and provides reading aid. Draws from Classical Chinese empty words with Middle Chinese pronunciation. A standalone word that is placed at the end of a sentence.
    ParticleCharacterFunction
    huinterrogative; yes/no
    pocontrastive interrogative; 'or not?'
    fiieexclamatory interrogative; 'how?'
    niexclamation; finality
    yhatopic marker
    yaaexplanatory marker


    [top]萬倫 - Múnrun/Ten-Thousand Relationships/Ontological Hierarchy

    The order in which sentence arguments must follow. The highest ranking argument is the closest to the verb.

    Växárai society has a strict caste system which arose out of a mixed society of agriculture and raiding. The castes have an honourific and a full name. There are many sub-castes as well which may fall under the broader honourific.
    Sub-CasteCasteHonourificNameDescription
    n/ateitéiemperor: past rulers; gods; mythical beasts; Chinese emperor
    聖駕yhengkaatéicurrent ruler
    帝家hongtéikaroyal family
    王⿰⺅린honghóngrunking: viceroys; barbarian kings
    聖; 嗑⿰⻖셰yheng; vinhámseetwelve sacreds: royal priests
    大臣vindáivingreat aristocrat: great lords
    下臣vinwhaavinlesser aristocrat: lesser lords; noble generals
    vikhegreater knight: career generals
    士; ⿰⺅싸戰vixáyhenlesser knight: career soldiers
    官⿰⻖셰kankánseesacred magistrate: priests
    官⿰⺅린kankánrinmagistrate: high ranking officials
    君⿰⺅린kankúnrungentleman: gentry
    吏⿰⺅린rirírinclerk: low ranking officials
    ⿰⺅싸學⿰⻖셰rixáneeseesacred learner: priest acolytes
    ⿰⺅싸學rixáneelearner: learned men
    諸民minyhómincommoners: serfs; fishermen
    ⿰⺅싸作minxávakmaker: eminent artisans
    敝⿰⻖이biiebiieitattered person: artisans; artisan slaves
    卑⿰⻖이peepeeiinferior person: merchants
    奴⿰⺨에nunúeslave beast: slaves; butchers; trash collectors; untouchables; twelve bad occupations of Buddhism

    Within the castes, the five relationships (五倫/Ngúrun) of Confucianism are followed. These are: ruler to ruled, father to son, husband to wife, elder brother to younger brother, friend to friend. Females younger than the mother are treated equally as the lowest ranked. The eldest relations are highest ranked, with the father's side taking precedence over the mother's. Ruler to ruled applies in social and economic hierarchy within the castes.

    Further down the hierarchy are animals and inanimate objects, which are listed in order below, with abstract concepts higher ranked than concrete concepts in the classification.
    ClassHonourificNameDescription
    duurelating to religion and philosophy
    whiiabeast of burden; pet
    hoklivestock
    whuuwild game
    n/atuvermin etc.
    puunatural treasure; e.g. gold/jewels
    diietool/building of knowledge; e.g. books/library
    venmoney; relating to wealth
    yokessential agricultural tool; relating to agriculture
    yikhunting tool
    n/aphongweapon
    n/agoogeneral tool
    kiinhabited/inhabitable location; e.g. house/farm
    yangbody of water
    n/akhungwasteland; undesirable/dangerous location
    n/amotgeneral materials etc.
    honunclean tool/body part; relating to butchering/excreta/slavery/death; twelve bad occupations of Buddhism


    [top]代詞 - Dóivi/Replacement Words/Subject Pronouns

    Pronouns can only be used as subjects and have only three persons and one proximative case. Chinese pronouns can also be used in certain contexts. Pro-drop can occur when the subject can be inferred.
    PronounCharacterPersonUsageOrigin
    sang1intimate; archaicMiddle Växárai
    sángkkam郚⿰칾⺉1polite; self-deprecatoryMiddle Växárai
    ging1formal; in the presence of superiorsOld Chinese
    rái1formal; younger brother or cousin to elder brother or cousinOld Chinese
    xem1formal; wife to husbandOld Chinese
    nghái1general; topicOld Chinese
    nga1possessiveOld Chinese
    ram1royal 'we'Old Chinese
    phi2intimate; archaicMiddle Växárai
    phírin籋⿰⺅린2polite; courtesyMiddle Växárai
    phíwhaa籋下2extremely politeMiddle Växárai
    mhang2formal; to elder brother or cousinOld Chinese
    khárang2formal; husband to wifeOld Chinese
    páfe夫子2formal; disciple to teacherOld Chinese
    suu2formal; addressing elder manOld Chinese
    kárun2addressing superior or overseerOld Chinese
    fát2addressing nobilityOld Chinese
    khang2addressing 王 casteOld Chinese
    bígara陛下2addressing 帝 casteOld Chinese
    niet2generalOld Chinese
    miia2deprecatoryProto-Hmong-Mien
    kása3.ANintimate; archaicMiddle Växárai
    yon3.INANinanimateMiddle Växárai
    yhi3generalMiddle Chinese
    pái3general; emphaticOld Chinese
    niiana3deprecatoryProto-Hmong-Mien


    [top]Sentence Types
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