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This public article was written by Eowyn Hiraeth, and last updated on 6 May 2017, 09:50.
9. Word classes
10. Word orderhere.
There are also four determiner affixes : definite, indefinite, indefinite ideal and negative partitive.
Although there is a lot of declinations, they are very learner-friendly. You can use any declination that seems to express what you want to say ; it will probably be right. For example, "free me from the prison" can use ectessive ("free me out of the prison"). Just remember this : referential and cause are covered by prolative, and partitive is covered by the zero article.
The genitive declination does not have to be declinated as plural if it is a title (for example the name of a shop, of a book...).
Short declensions exist for allative, genitive and prolative, combining the determiner with it. See the grammar tables.
Finally, before we get into serious stuff, it is important to know that prolative is likely to replace any other declension if there is no ambuiguity.
The very rare neutral genitive is used for nouns that are not definite nor undefinite. It uses the declension -aöf.
"Dragon Sea" = soalüü gcon̨aelaöf - /ˈswaly: ˈɟ͡ʝonɛ́lɤf/
A rare plural form can be used as a collective, using -ran.
"mountain" = laeohva - /ˈlɛo̯jʋa/
"mountain range" = laeohvaran - /ˈlɛo̯jʋaɾan/
The definite, indefinite and demonstrative cases don't work exactly like the other cases. First of all, they have prefixes and not sufixes, except for their plural.
"the cat" = üsemas̨e - /ysɛmaˈs:ɛ/
"cats" = söhsemas̨eon - /ˈsœjsɛmasɛ́ˑɤn/
They can combine with any other case. If there is a combination and if the noun is plural, the definite / indefinite / demonstrative plural disappears.
"of the cat" = üsemas̨eozë - /yˈsɛmasɛ́ˑoθ/
"in the cats" = ühsemas̨eenehn - /yjˈsɛmasɛ́ˑɛnɛjn/
Any numeral goes after the declinated word.
[top]Plurals and weak personnal pronouns
Declinations plural can be bewildering at the first look. Let's check nominative plural first.
üsemas̨e- /ysɛmaˈs:ɛ/ - the cat (singular nominative)
ühsemas̨eon- /yjˈsɛmasɛ́ˑɤn/ - the cats (plural nominative)
When declinated, a plural noun can't get the -on mark. Instead, the declinated plural mark -hn (which is regular) is used (notice that the determiner plural is unchanged).
üsemas̨eese- /yˈsɛmasɛ́ˑɛsɛ/ - to the cat (singular allative)
ühsemas̨eesehn- /yjˈsɛmasɛ́ˑɛsɛjn/ - to the cats (plural allative)
This gets trickier with possession using the weak personnal pronouns (for more information about pronouns, see this article). We will use -ika, "my", as an example.
üsemas̨eika- /yˈsɛmasɛ́ˑika/ - my cat (singular nominative 1S-possessed)
ühsemas̨eonika- /yˈsɛmasɛ́ˑonika/ - my cats (plural nominative 1S-possessed)
As you can see here, the possession mark goes after the plural, oppositely from the declension. Now as for the declinated AND possessed form.
üsemas̨eikaese- /yˈsɛmasɛ́ˑikɛjsɛ/ - to my cat (singular allative 1S-possessed)
ühsemas̨eikaesehn- /yjˈsɛmasɛ́ˑikɛjsɛjn/ - to my cats (plural allative 1S-possessed)
Back to the declension mark at the end.
Adjectives have singular nominative, plural nominative and oblique cases. See the grammar table here.
One funny thing with oblique case is that it can turn into prefixes at will, depending on the phonological harmony.
ühslaeohvaen̨ahn kreoater- /yjˈslɛo̯jʋɛjnáˑjn ˈkɾɛwatɛjɪl/ - within the big mountains
ühslaeohvaen̨ahn erkreoat- /yjˈslɛo̯jʋɛjnáˑjn ɛjˈkɾɛwat/ - within the big mountains (which sounds better)
Declinations in Mayessa are pretty much like Finnish ones. They are all regular, except for the plural form, and used when even other declinative languages would use a conjunction or a preposition. The cases used are : Abessive, Allative, Antessive, Definite, Demonstrative, Ectessive, Essive, Genitive, Indefinite, Inessive, Instrumental, Intrative, Oppositive, Plural, Postessive, Prolative, Reflexive, Singular, Subessive, Sublative and Similative. You can see the meaning of each of them