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Language Contact & Semantic Shifts in the Chauko-Kwangatic & Sondilic Families
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who swapped words with who when
This public article was written by miles, and last updated on 23 Sep 2017, 21:22.

[comments] Menu 1. HISTORICAL CONTEXT 2. SEMANTIC SHIFTS IN PREHISTORY: The Bronze & Early Iron Age (~800 BCE)
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This article is a work in progress! Check back later in case any changes have occurred.

[top]HISTORICAL CONTEXT

OVERVIEW, CHAUKU & KWANGAT'S TRAVELS:
  • Chauko-Kwangatic (=Western Branch) splits off from Hasparic around 2000 bce, and is in a warm northern region with no way of contacting Suvo-Poshumic branch by 1200 bce. Chauko-Kwangatic speakers likely used boats for some portion of this journey, but the region is landlocked.
  • Chauko-Kwangatic (=Chauko-Kwangatic) speakers on move again due to a drought in 800 bce.


OVERVIEW, TECHNOLOGY AT EARLY CONTACT:
HUSBANDRY Wefiri speakers have goats and sheep. Sondilo speakers have goats and sheep, plus pigs and geese. Chickens are introduced to Sondilo via Lowland Suvonic around 400 CE.
AGRICULTURE Wefiri speakers practice limited agriculture. Sondilo speakers have extensive agriculture.
MARITIME Wefiri & Chauko-Kwangatic speakers have vestigial basic boat terms for conversing with and about Sondilo. Sondilo speakers fish heavily.
WARFARE Chauko-Kwangatic speakers favor spears, bows, and axes. Wefiri speakers favor swords, clubs, and bows; they have shields but do not make much use of armor. Sondilo speakers favor spears, swords, and bows; they have shields and armor.


WHO SWAPPED WHAT, BROADLY:
Mystery Conlang (m n p t k w l y ʃ h a i u, CVC) > Chauko-Kwangatic
Only Layer (600 BCE)
Flora & Fauna: plants, animals
= succulent plant (*puna), yucca (*kappah), cactus (*kupi), juniper (*makka), coyote (*ʃulu)
Misc: Various
= hat (*milu), pearl (*tuʃi, likely < Suvonic *tiuse), bottle (*hunu)

Wefiri > Kwangatic:
First Layer (200-0 BCE)
Flora & Fauna: Plants, animals, animal husbandry
= goat, sheep, kid, lamb, herd, blackberry, bramble, acorn, oak, grape, vine, corn, lantana, bay laurel
Environment: Terrain, weather
= fog, slope, moonsoon/el niño, drought
Warfare: War, weapons
= loot/plunder, bow, sheath, quiver
Trade: Food, business, trade items, containers
= jug, bag/satchel, bundle, haggle, bread, milk, cheese, unit of weight, unit of measurement
Buildings: Dwellings, structures
= house, shed/stable, fence, bridge

Second Layer (0-600 CE)
Everyday: Food, containers, trade, business, games, household items, clothing
= cup, chair, dice, skirt, flour, wine, bulb, hearth
Crafts: Skills, tools, technology
= rag, stitch, smelt, letter,
Husbandry: Animals, animal husbandry, words relating to animals
= squirrel, bezoar, dappled
Government: Law, titles
= guard, chase, escape, dignity, exile, servant
Kinship: Family
= half-sibling, grandchild, younger sibling, marry
Body: Body parts
= knuckle, kidney

Kwangatic > Wefiri
First Layer (200-0 BCE)
Warfare: War, weapons
= axe/hatchet,
Kinship: Family
= older sibling/aunt,

Wefiri > Chaukic
First Layer (200-100 BCE)
Flora & Fauna: Plants, animals, animal husbandry
= goat, sheep, blackberry, grape, acorn, oak
Environment: Terrain, weather
= fog, moonsoon/el niño
Warfare: War, weapons
= loot/plunder, bow, sheath, quiver
Trade: Food, business, trade items, containers
= jug, bag/satchel, bundle, haggle, bread, milk, cheese, unit of weight
Buildings: Dwellings, structures
= house, shed/stable, fence, bridge

Sondilo > Chaukic:
= case/box,

HISTORICAL SUMMARY OF EVERYONE:
200 bce
Kwangatic & Chaukic split
Wefiri & Kwangatic meet
Wefiri gives 1-8 loanwords to Chaukic

100 bce
Intense contact between Wefiri & Kwangatic
A handful of loanwords from a Mystery Conlang enter Chauku as it continues north; one or two of these words may have entered Kwangatic via Wefiri.

300 ce
First loanwords between Chaukic & Sondilic

400 ce
Intense contact Chaukic & Sondilic
Kwangatic regains limited trade with Chaukic and starts new trade with Sondilic; route is not particularly stable and trade is sporadic.

600 ce
Wefiri of much less significance to Kwangatic; becoming defunct

800 ce
Wefiri gone

1400 ce
Kwangatic has solid trade with Chaukic & Sondilic

[top]SEMANTIC SHIFTS IN PREHISTORY: The Bronze & Early Iron Age (~800 BCE)

The Bronze Age hits the Western Branch of Haspuri just before 800 BCE, with the following word additions from unknown sources (one /m n ŋ p t k pʰ tʰ kʰ ts s h w j r l ɔ: ɛ: a u i/ CVC no geminates heavy on /r ts kʰ tʰ s/ and one /m n p t k kʷ x xʷ w j r l a: i: u: ə i u/ CV geminate /p t k l/ heavy on /x l kʷ p m/), and from within Western Haspuri itself.

Semantic Shifts within Western Haspuri
HPR *kaław 'splinter, shard' > needle
HPR *kū' 'tool' > machine, tool
HPR *qūlsyīra 'cut, slice + NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
' > sword
HPR *ki'ā 'pierce' > cut, slice, pierce
HPR *pāmuŋ 'stab, impale' > 'impale, pierce'


New compounds within Western Haspuri
weave + machine = loom

Mysteryconlang 0A to Western Haspuri
-- most words end in -u or -is; some end -ɔ:.
-- medial aspiration is borrowed as a following /h/, as gemination, or ignored.
kɒ:ris 'stove, furnace, kiln' < kʰɔ:ris 'stove, furnace, kiln'
pe:ris 'copper' < pɛ:ris 'copper' (quite probably from Suvonic *bedusi)
taku 'silver' < taku ' silver' (quite probably from Suvonic *takke)
pe:wɒ: 'sugar' < pɛ:wɔ: 'sugar' (quite probably from Suvonic *pelai)
se:kis 'blade' < tsɛ:kis 'sword'
ŋuttu 'slag, scrap' < ŋutʰu 'slag'
arɒ:tsu 'gem, jewel' < arɔ:tsu 'gem, jewel, adornment'
ne:ris 'goods, cargo' < nɛ:ris 'goods'
patsɒ: 'bin, container' < pʰatsɔ: 'bin, container'

Mysteryconlang 0B to Western Haspuri
wa:kə 'strap, harness' < wa:kə 'strap, band'
kwollu 'sweet potato' < kʷəllu 'sweet potato'
-- likely cognate *pollau occurs later in Sondilo
xi: 'hat' < xi: 'hat'
məkwɒ: 'amber' < məkʷa: 'amber'

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