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Växárai [VXR]
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Typology Progressing 119 words
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Växárai
växárai
[vɐ.ˈʃa.ɾa.i]
Registered by Camera244 on 18 June 2018
Language type A priori
Species Human/humanoid
About Växárai Växárai is a polysynthetic language isolate spoken on a large island off the coast of Sakhalin and replacing the Kurils, with influence from Chinese, Korean, Japanese and Manchu. It uses a mixed script of original characters made from Chinese character components and Hangul. Hangul combined with Chinese radicals usually shows up in particles and function words. Phonetic transcription is done using the Manchu alphabet. Due to Catholic and Protestant proselytising, it also has many Latin and English loanwords. Most religious loanwords are customarily phonetically written using the Mongolian clear script adjacent to a character defining its meaning. Modern English loanwords are written using the English alphabet. To differentiate a native word from a Chinese loanword, the Manchu phonetic spelling will be written adjacent to the character. This language was the court and literary language of the Vángxara people, and continues to be used today in education, law, and traditional record-keeping. It is fossilised akin to Sanskrit, with many languages springing from it, but Vernacular Växárai is still spoken in court and taught as a lingua franca in schools.
Sample of Växárai[view] / / / 侍⿳⼤⾥⽻勿貳伴哯宓 / 下爾退宓 / -- / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / -- / / -- / / -- / / -- / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / -- / / / / / / -- / / / / / -- / [view all texts]
Latest vocabulary
sakaffdistributive number
iaffordinal number
rennumzero
Language family relationships
Language treeVäxárai
 ⤷ Proto Växárai
  ⤷ Archaic Växárai
   ⤷ Middle Växárai
    ⤷  Växárai
 
Phonology
ConsonantsBilabialLabio-
dental
AlveolarPost-
Alveolar
PalatalLabio-
velar
VelarGlottalOther
Nasal m m̥   n n̥       ŋ ŋ̥    
Plosive p pʼ [p̚] pʰ [b]1   t [t̚] tʰ [d]2       k kʼ [k̚] kʰ [g]3    
Fricative   f v s ʃ ç     h  
Approximant         j w w̥     ɥ ɥ̥
Flap     ɾ            
Click     ǃ            
  1. V_V, [m]_, allophone of /p/
  2. V_V, [n]_, allophone of /t/
  3. V_V, [ŋ]_, allophone of /k/
VowelsFrontNear-
front
CentralNear-
back
Back
Close i i:       u u:
Near-close   [ɪ]1   [ʊ]2  
Close-mid e e:       o o:
Open-mid [ɛ]3       [ɔ]4
Near-open     [ɐ]5    
Open a [a:]6        
Polyphthongs ɪie ɪia [ie]7 [ia]8
  1. allophone of /i/
  2. allophone of /u/
  3. allophone of /e/
  4. allophone of /o/
  5. allophone of /a/
  6. allophone of /a/
  7. allophone of /ɪie/
  8. allophone of /ɪia/
Syllable StructureCV(C) or V. Long vowels cannot occur with codas or in isolation. A hiatus is inserted when an isolate vowel is adjacent to an identical vowel. (C) only takes voiced nasals.
OtherMax mora count is three, so triphthongs shorten to their allophonic diphthongs. Rime class and vowel harmony is dictated by the stressed syllable.

Phonological Rules:
1. Hiatus Deletion
[+glottal +c.g.] → ∅/[+syllabic]___[-α place]
2. Geminate Shortening
[+cons. +long] → [-long]/σμμμ
3. Triphthong Shortening
[+syllabic -tense] → ∅/σμμμ
4. Nasal Place Assimilation
[+nasal] → [+α place]/___[+nasal +α place]
5. Stress Rule
???
6. Short Vowel Deletion
[+syllabic -long] → ∅/[+cons. -s.g. -c.g. -voice]___]word
7. Nasal Coda Voicing Deletion
[+nasal] → [+syllabic -nasal +α place]/[+syllabic +α place]___[+nasal -voice]
8. Nasal Coda Stress Deletion
[+nasal] → ∅/___[+stress]σ
9. Stress Laxness
[+syllabic -long] → [-tense]/___[+stress]σ
10. Lax Vowel Deletion
[+syllabic -tense] → ∅/[+approximant]___
11. Vowel Harmony
???
12. Stop Voicing
[+cons. -s.g. -c.g. -voice] → [+voice]/[+syllabic]___[+syllabic]
Orthography
Below is the orthography for Växárai. This includes all graphemes as defined in the language's phonology settings - excluding the non-distinct graphemes/polygraphs.
 VäxáraiOrthography
i/i/ii/i:/ï[ɪ]e/e/ee/e:/ë[ɛ]u/u/uu/u:/ü[ʊ]o/o/
oo/o:/ö[ɔ]a/a/aa[a:]ä[ɐ]iia/ɪia/ia[ia]iie/ɪie/ie[ie]m/m/
mh/m̥/n/n/nh/n̥/ng/ŋ/ngh/ŋ̥/p/p/ph/pʰ/pp/pʼ/b[b]1t/t/
th/tʰ/tt/ǃ/d[d]2k/k/kh/kʰ/kk/kʼ/g[g]3f/f/v/v/s/s/
x/ʃ/h/h/y/j/yh/ç/w/w/wh/w̥/yw/ɥ/ywh/ɥ̥/r/ɾ/
✔ Shown in correct order
  1. V_V, [m]_
  2. V_V, [n]_
  3. V_V, [ŋ]_
Latest 8 related articles listed below.
Växárai Grammar
An overview of Växárai grammar.
05-Dec-18 08:08
Växárai Orthography
The ultimate guide to Växárai orthography.
04-Sep-18 00:53
Växárai Literature
An overview of Växárai literature.
04-Sep-18 00:52
Typological information for Växárai

GendersAnimate/Inanimate
Morphological typologyPolysynthetic
Morphosyntactic alignmentHierarchical alignment
Number of nominal casesEight cases or more
Verb agreementAll three (subject + objects)

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