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Mauic pronominal system
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This public article was written by aquincum, and last updated on 16 Jan 2020, 12:01.

[comments] The pronominal system of Mau contains several subtle distinctions regarding formality, honorificity or more detailed identity of the participants of the discourse. Plurality is usually marked in the first and second persons, and (not obligatorily) for animate third person pronouns as well.

 Mau

SINGPLUR
First person
  • bue [b̥y] -- plain first person pronoun
  • kkue [kʼy] -- self-humiliating
  • yip [jɨp̚] -- a very formal pronoun for high status speakers. A king would use this

  • bexe [b̥əxə] -- inclusive 1.PL
  • bibue [b̥ɨb̥y] -- exclusive 1.PL
  • gikkue [g̥ɨkʼy] -- self-humiliating exclusive 1.PL

Second person
  • xe [xə] -- plain informal form
  • yuey [jyj] -- formal V form coming from the plural
  • tsreas [ʈʂɛs] -- formal used to address priests
  • sejoq [səɟ̥o̰] -- very formal used to address royalty
  • wy [wi] -- vulgar/very dismissive 'you scum!'

  • yuey [jyj] -- plain plural
  • tsreas yuey [ʈʂɛs jyj] -- formal used to address more priests
  • iwy [ʔɨwi] -- vulgar/very dismissive 'all you scum!'

Third person
  • eiq [ʔḛ] --referring to animate beings
  • pfyh [pɸih] -- honorific, referring to a honorified animate
  • hiccue [hɨcʼy] -- vulgar referring do a dismissed animate
  • hhay [χäi] -- inanimate, proximal, = 'this'
  • tahhay [t̪ʰäχäi] -- inanimate, distal = 'that'

  • eiq gie [ʔḛ g̥iɛ] --referring to animate beings
  • pfyh gie [pɸih g̥iɛ] -- honorific, referring to honorified animate
  • hiccue gie [hɨcʼy g̥iɛ] -- vulgar referring do dismissed animate
  • No number distinction for inanimates, use hhay and tahhay



 Mainland Capital Mau

SINGPLUR
First person
  • plain first person pronoun
  • kau-- self-humiliating
  • yïuk [jɨwʔ], court speech yïp [jɨp̚] -- a very formal pronoun for high status speakers. A king would use this

  • phâ [pʰə] -- inclusive 1.PL
  • büdze* -- exclusive 1.PL
  • kaudze* -- self-humiliating exclusive 1.PL

Second person
  • khâ [χə] -- plain informal form
  • [jy] -- formal V form coming from the plural
  • thếs [ʈɛ́s] -- formal used to address priests
  • ts'hò [t͡sʰò], high court speech c'ho̰ [cʰo̰] -- very formal used to address royalty
  • ui [ui] -- vulgar/very dismissive 'you scum!'

  • or yüdze* -- plain plural
  • thếs yü -- formal used to address more priests
  • ui or uidze*-- vulgar/very dismissive 'all you scum!'

Third person
  • è [è], high court speech [ḛ] --referring to animate beings
  • fih [fih] -- honorific, referring to a honorified animate
  • ts'hau [t͡sʰau] -- vulgar referring do a dismissed animate
  • khê [χɛ] -- inanimate, proximal, = 'this'
  • t'hê [tʰɛ] -- inanimate, distal = 'that'

  • èdze* --referring to animate beings
  • fihdze* -- honorific, referring to honorified animate
  • ts'haudze* -- vulgar referring do dismissed animate
  • No number distinction for inanimates, use khê and t'hê



* plural -dze is -je [ɟe] in high court speech

 Islander Mau

SINGPLUR
First person
  • pī [pí] -- plain first person pronoun
  • kí [kǐ] -- humble

  • xə̄ [xə́] -- 1.PL

Second person
  • yī [ jí] -- plain informal and formal form
  • tsɛ̄ [t͡sɛ́] -- formal used to address priests
  • co̰ [côˀ] -- honorific
  • wī [wí] -- vulgar

  • yī -- plain plural
  • tsɛ̄yī [t͡sɛ́jí] -- formal used to address more priests
  • wī [wí] -- vulgar

Third person
  • [êˀ] --referring to animate beings
  • pi [pì] -- honorific, referring to a honorified animate
  • cí [cǐ] -- vulgar referring do a dismissed animate
  • xɛ̄ [xɛ́] -- inanimate

  • ḛkî [êˀk*] --referring to animate beings
  • pikî [pìk*] -- honorific, referring to honorified animate
  • No number distinction for inanimates, use xɛ̄




 Isky Ruttay Pidgin

SINGPLUR
First person
  • pī [p*]

  • [xá]

Second person
  • yī [j*] -- formal
  • wī [w*] -- vulgar

  • yī -- formal
  • wī -- vulgar

Third person
  • [*] -- referring to animate beings
  • cí [c*] -- vulgar animate (also ` one'
  • xɛ̄ [xɛ́] -- inanimate

  • èki [*kì] --referring to animate beings
  • No number distinction for inanimates, use xɛ̄




 Western Mountains Mau

SINGPLUR
First person
  • pyu [pʲu]

  • po [po] -- inclusive
  • puppyu [puppʲu] -- exclusive

Second person
  • dyoi [ɟɔɪ] -- formal
  • ghe [ɣe] -- informal

  • dyoi [ɟɔɪ]

Third person
  • e [e] -- referring to animate beings
  • rhoi [ʁɔɪ] -- inanimate proximal
  • harhoi [hɑʁɔɪ] -- inanimate distal

  • ekya [ekʲɑ] --referring to animate beings
  • No number distinction for inanimates, use rhoi, harhoi




X

SINGPLUR
First person
  • puì -- plain first person pronoun
  • kkui (<kkue) humble

  • ghâi -- inclusive 1.PL
  • buì -- exclusive 1.PL
  • kkui -- humbl 1.PL

Second person
  • xâi -- plain informal form
  • yei -- formal V form coming from the plural
  • ce -- formal used to address priests

  • yei -- plain plural
  • ceyi -- formal used to address more priests

Third person
  • 'ea --referring to animate beings
  • -- honorific, referring to a honorified animate
  • khai -- inanimate, proximal, = 'this'
  • rhai -- inanimate, distal = 'that'

  • 'eage --referring to animate beings
  • pïge -- honorific, referring to honorified animate
  • No number distinction for inanimates, use khai and rhai




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