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Haspuri > Chauku
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This public article was written by miles, and last updated on 16 Apr 2017, 23:10.

[comments] Menu 1. Proto-Hapruhic > Western Branch (BCE 2000-800) 2. Western Branch > Proto-Chauko-Kwangatic (BCE 800-200) 3. Proto-Chauko-Kwangatic > Proto-Chaukic (BCE 200-CE 300) 4. Proto-Chaukic > Old Chauku (CE 300-CE 950) 5. Old Chauku > Middle Chauku (CE 950-1450) 6. Middle Chauku > Modern Chauku (CE 1450-2017) 7. Sound Correspondences (Old Chauku to Modern Chauku) 8. Grammar Shifts
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[top]Proto-Hapruhic > Western Branch (BCE 2000-800)

ī ū ā > i u a / _CCC or _CC$$

h > ∅ / C[-glide]_

ī ū ā > i u ɒ
i u a > e ɨ a
e > ə

Short ‹i u› Reduction:
{e ɨ} > ə / _#

Blocked by a following vowel (in which case above shift occurs):
{īw ūw uw ūy} > u
{āw aw iw} > o
{īy iy} > i
{āy ay uy} > e

h > ∅ / V_V

Low Vowel Hiatus Clean-Up {a ɒ ə e o}:
Ve > e:
eV > e:
Vo > ɒ:
oV > ɒ:
aə ɒə > a: ɒ:
əa əɒ > a: ɒ:
(This order holds, so /oe/ > /e:/)

High Vowel Hiatus Clean-Up:
i u ɨ > y w ɰ / _{a ɒ ə e o}
i u ɨ > y w ɰ / {a ɒ ə e o i u ɨ}_

uɰ oɰ > wɨ wə

ɰ > y / _{e i}
ɰ > w / _{ɒ o u}
ɰ > ∅: / _#
ɰ > ∅ / #_
ɰ > h

Cluster simplification:
s > ∅ / {C,#}_{p,t,k,m,n,l}
χ > aχ / {C,#}_C
mb nd ŋd nğ > m n ŋ ŋ / #_

s > z / V_{b d g m n ŋ r l}

s > θ
t͡s > s

Unstressed schwa is deleted between a nasal and a stop in either order, e.g. *anəpaθu > *anpaθu & apənaθu > *apnaθu

Medial nasal clean-up:
{b d g m n ŋ r l}m {b d g m n ŋ r l}n > mm nn
{m n ŋ}b {m n ŋ}d {{m n ŋ}g {m n ŋ}ɢ} > mm nn ŋŋ

k > q / _{a ɒ o}
ə i ɨ u > ɒ e ə o / {q χ ħ}_
ə i ɨ u > ɒ e ə o / _{q χ ħ}

k g > t͡s z / _V
q ğ > k g

[top]Western Branch > Proto-Chauko-Kwangatic (BCE 800-200)

w y > kʷ ch / _V
ə > ɒ / kʷ_

rw > w

l > n / #_VC
θ > f / _l
l > w / C_
r > l / #_

Cluster simplification:
{dr tr nr} > r

r > y

Blocked when _V:
ɒy > ay
oy > uy
{əy ɨy iy} > i:
ɒw > aw
ew > iw
{əw ɨw uw} > u:
-- Diphthongs /aj ey uj aw ow iw/ are preserved.

ɨ > u / _(C...)u
ɒ > o / _(C...)o
ɒ > o / o{p b m kʷ}_

Cluster simplification:
mp nt ŋk > mm nn ŋŋ
nθ lθ rθ > nn ll rr

[top]Proto-Chauko-Kwangatic > Proto-Chaukic (BCE 200-CE 300)

i ɨ u > e ə o / _ħ
ħ > h

z > :∅ / _{C,#}
z > r

Stop clusters assimilate to the first stop:
pt > pp
gb > gg

Word-final voicing loss:
p t k > f ʔ x / {V y w}_
b d g > p t k / _#

a ɒ e o ə > a: ɒ: e: o: ə: / _{f θ x χ ł}

Pre-tonic non-initial short vowels between two stops are deleted:
V > ∅ / V(:)C[+stop]_C[+stop]V(:)CV(:)
V > ∅ / V(:)C[+stop]_C[+stop]V(:)CCV(:)

Voiced Consonant Loss:
b d g > p t k

t͡s > s / {V y w}_{V y w}

Loss of Quirky Final Resonants:
a ə {ɨ u} ɒ o > ɒ: o: u: ɒw ow / _l{C,#}
{p t k} > ∅ / l_#

l > ∅ / _{m n ŋ r}

t > ʔ / _#
l > t / _C
l > t / _#

{h ʔ} > ∅: / _{#,C}

[top]Proto-Chaukic > Old Chauku (CE 300-CE 950)

Vowels shortened before two consonants / _C[-glide]C

h > ∅ / C_ -- including glides

Consonant gemination is lost.

Vowels shortened in final syllable / _{#,C#}

a: ɒ: > a o
ə: ɨ: > a ɨ
i: u: > i u
o: e: > wo ye

End of Early Proto-Chaukic (CE 400)

ə u > a wu / if stressed

wo wu > wɒ {u, wɒ} -- decide wu's fate on a coin flip basically (if need algorithm, _(C...){a ɒ e} or _# > wɒ / else u).
w > ∅ / {p m f}_

{wa(:) wɒ(:)} wə > ɒ(:) o / C_
{wɨ wi} we(:) > u o(:) / C_

kʷ > k / u_
kʷ > k / _u
kʷ > k / _C[-bilabial]
{a ə} e i > ɒ o u / _kʷ -- only affects short vowels

χ > x

Oral Vowels > Nasal / _(y,w)N

õw ẽy > ãw ãy
õ {ẽ ɨ̃} {ə̃ ɒ̃} > ũ ĩ ã

{m p} > ∅ / _C
{m p} > ∅ / _#

n > ŋ / _C
n > {ŋ, t} / _# -- usually /ŋ/, sometimes /t/, conditions are 100% unknown.

ũ ĩ ã > u i a

kʷ > k

{s θ f x} > h / _{C,#}

[top]Old Chauku > Middle Chauku (CE 950-1450)

t c ŋ k x > c s ñ ch sh / _{y i}
ñy chy shy > ñ ch sh

ñ > n

Only if unstressed:
{ŋ k} > ∅ / VC(C...)_#

yi yɨ yə ya yɒ > i i ye ye ya
y > ∅ / C_

ɒ > a

In all circumstances:
{iw ew aw ow} > o
{uy oy ay ey} > e
{əy ɨy iy} > i
{əw ɨw uw} > u

ə > ∅ / VC_# -- stress is now irregular
Və > V: / _# -- stress moves to end of word

f > w / _V

ʔ > ∅ / ! #_ -- all words allophonically may begin with /ʔ/

[top]Middle Chauku > Modern Chauku (CE 1450-2017)

ʔ-Loss Hiatus Simplification:
ai > ei

h > ∅
ɨ > i

i > u / _(C)(C)u -- if /i/ was unstressed in stem form of word

ə > e / {a,e,o}(C)(C)_
ə > i

x > h
c > ch

t > ʔ / V_V
θ > t

{s ʃ ł h} > ∅: / _{C,#}

Inconsistent, only happens segment is if separated from first vowel by only one consonant:
oʔa > oʔo / V[-a](C)_
eʔa > eʔe / V[-a](C)_

l > ∅ / _#

r > ∅

[top]Sound Correspondences (Old Chauku to Modern Chauku)

OC StopsModern ChaukuOC FricativesModern ChaukuOC MiscModern ChaukuOC DiphthongsModern Chauku
pp ff ll, -y ay oy eye i i
tt, -ʔ θt ww, -∅-* ɨy uy iye wi e
t(y,i)ts ss, -:∅ yc, -h aw ow ew o u o
k(y,i) x(y,i)ʃ, -:∅ ŋn, -∅ ɨw uw iwu o yu
kk xh, -:∅
ʔ h


PSP Long VowelOC VowelPSP Short VowelOC VowelPSP Long Y-DiphthongOC VowelPSP Short Y-DiphthongOC VowelPSP Long W-DiphthongOC VowelPSP Short W-DiphthongOC Vowel
āa aə āye aye āwo awu
ūo uɨ ūyu uyi ūwu uwu
īe ii īyi iyi īwu iwu


[top]Grammar Shifts

Much of PSP's morphology has been ejected by the time of Old Chauku; the plural suffix -yu is absent from the proto-language, and the accusative suffix -(ə)t is suspiciously similar to PSP's nominalizer.

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