POS-Changing Affixes in Bodin
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Nominalizers, adjectivizers, and adverbializers, and how/when to use them
This public article was written by pachelbel, and last updated on 15 Jul 2018, 04:29.
7. Bodin Idioms
10. Bodin Lesson #3
11. Bodin pronounsNominalizers
da- / na-
- Used with adjective, creates a personification ("one who/that is describable by ADJ"; e.g. dashapannoin "one [who is] immortal")
- Used with verb, creates an actor ("one who/that VBs"); if verb ends in -r, remove the -r (e.g. daspo "one [who] destroys", vs. spor "to destroy")
- Roughly equivalent to English -er/-or
- da creates an animate actor/personification, na an inanimate one; e.g. nashix "alarm clock" (lit. "inanimate waker") vs. *dashix "person/animal who wakes someone"
- Prefix/suffix pair, surrounding the root word
- Used with adjective, equivalent to English "-ness", but used more often
- Used with verb, equivalent to English "-tion"
- If adding c- -cei to an adjective, and the adjective was formed from a noun that began with a cluster, put the cluster back. (See below for adjective consonant cluster rules)
- If c + first sound/s of word (after putting back any clusters) create an allowed cluster, they will do so (e.g. c- + siprin "free" + -cei = xipricei "freedom"); otherwise, an "a" is inserted (e.g. c- + muiso "inspire" + -cei = camuisocei "inspiration"). If the word begins with c, don't add anything to its beginning.
- "c(a)-ADJ-cei N.GEN" or "N.GEN c(a)-ADJ-cei" is the construction normally used in Bodin to express "N is (transiently/currently) ADJ"; e.g. "Xipricei min" = "Freedom mine" = "I am free"
- A common ending for Bodin nouns in general
- Sometimes used for making an adjective (ending in -n) into a noun, e.g. pirshun = yellow (adj.), pirshuns = yellow (n.)
- Typically used for colors ("a shade of blue"), ordinal numbers ("the Fourth of July"), temperatures ("the cold"),
nationalities ("the English")
- When in doubt, use c- -cei instead
- Another common Bodin noun ending
- Sometimes used for making a verb ending in a vowel into a noun, similar to -ns for adjectives being made into nouns
Adjectivizer & Genitive Case
- In Bodin, genitive-case nouns are considered to be a type of adjective, and act like them in all situations. The following apply to both normal adjectives, and nouns in the genitive case.
- In general, all adjectives (with very few exceptions) end in -n. With normal adjectives, any vowel, diphthong, or vowel+r may come before the -n. However, a genitive case noun will almost always end in -in, or rarely in -ein, -oin, or -uin.
- Adjectives may not begin with consonant clusters. When a word beginning with a cluster is adjectivized, an "a" is inserted between the first and subsequent consonants to break up the cluster (e.g. Clespix "sun" --> Calespin "solar" or "of the sun")
- When putting a noun into the genitive case, some sounds at the end of the word may also be dropped or changed, depending on the ending of the word. See the noun declension grammar tables for more info.
- When making a noun into an adjective that cannot be defined as "of N", instead of putting an "i" before the final "n", the word either keeps its final vowel, or puts an "a" before the "n". (e.g. dirnu "cloud" --> dirnun "clouded"[of a liquid], vs dirnuin "of a cloud")
- The exceptions to the "adjectives end in -n" rule are ordinal numbers, which end in various vowels, and number-like adjectives such as "some" or "too much", which typically end in -x.
- Bodin adverbs typically end in -i, although with some important exceptions.
- Any adjective can be made into an adverb by adding -i (the equivalent of English -ly). Since virtually all adjectives end in -n, in practice most adverbs end in -ni.
- I guess you could make a genitive case noun into an adverb this way, but then it's your problem to figure out what the hell it means to do something in an "(of-N)-ly" manner.
- Bodin verbs end in either a vowel, a diphthong, or -r
- A noun can be made into a verb meaning "to do/make/act characteristically of (noun)" by adding -r if it ends in a vowel (e.g. chela = fire, chelar = to burn), or -ir if it ends in a consonant (darkh = strike, darkhir = to strike)
- If the noun ends in -e, this suffix becomes -ei instead, since ancestral -er has become -ei in modern Bodin
- If adding c- -cei, remove the -r/-i
- Don't assume that just because a verb ends in -r that it is descended from a noun, it's also just a common verb ending in its own right