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Simple Past
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When to use and How to form simple past structure
This public article was written by theotheo, and last updated on 26 Jul 2018, 15:49.

[comments] Menu 1. Conjugation 2. Sentence Structure
?FYI...
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One can use simple past to tell a past event. To form a simple past sentence, the verb is conjugated and ergative/absolutive form of the subject and object is used.

[top]Conjugation

Influenced by the Orcish languages, the verbs in Cazenian is conjugated by adding personal suffixes at the end of the word, besides the "t" element which came from Proto-Manic Language
Most verbs in Cazenian are weak verbs, meaning that they follow regular conjugation.
For example: (anumel)anuman "to call someone's name"
SingularPlural
1st (anumtem)anumtem(anumte)anumten
2nd (anumtet)anumtet(anumtes)anumtes
2nd Honorific (anumtes)anumtes(anumtes)anumtes
3rd Rational (anumten)anumten(anumtayn)anumtayn
3rd Irrational (anumtev)anumtev(anumtev)anumtev


Some verbs are mixed, meaning that they undergo stem changes. They usually have one syllable and consist "a" "o" or "u".
For example:(tsanel)tsanel "to fly"
SingularPlural
1st (tsäntem)tsäntem(tsänte)tsänte
2nd (tsäntet)tsäntet(tsäntes)tsäntes
2nd Honorific (tsäntes)tsäntes(tsäntes)tsäntes
3rd Rational (tsänten)tsänte(tsänteyn)tsänteyn
3rd Irrational (tsäntev)tsäntev(tsäntev)tsäntev


Some verbs are strong verbs, which means that they are irregular. Conjugated verbs in this category do not carry the "t" element.
Examples:
(bastan)bastan ➡ (vo)vo "to be"
SingularPlural
1st (vom)vom(vo)vo
2nd (vot)vot(vos)vos
2nd Honorific (vos)vos(vos)vos
3rd Rational (von)von(voyn)voyn
3rd Irrational (vov)vov(vov)vov

(ärin)ärin ➡ (are)ar "to be able"
SingularPlural
1st (arm)arm(ar)ar
2nd (art)art(ars)ars
2nd Honorific (ars)ars(ars)ars
3rd Rational (aren)aren(areyn)areyn
3rd Irrational (arv)arv(arv)arv

(vasan)vasan ➡ (vus)vus "to allowed"
SingularPlural
1st (vusm)vusm(vusn)vusn
2nd (vust)vust(vuses)vuses
2nd Honorific (vuses)vuses(vuses)vuses
3rd Rational (vusen)vusen(vusayn)vusayn
3rd Irrational (vusev)vusev(vusev)vusev

(zaban)zaban ➡ (za)za "to remember"
SingularPlural
1st (zam)zam(za)za
2nd (zat)zat(zas)zas
2nd Honorific (zas)zas(zas)zas
3rd Rational (zan)zan(zayn)zayn
3rd Irrational (zav)zav(zav)zav

(voyn)voyn ➡ (bo)bo "to regret"
SingularPlural
1st (bom)bom(bo)bo
2nd (bot)bot(bos)bos
2nd Honorific (bos)bos(bos)bos
3rd Rational (bon)bon(boyn)boyn
3rd Irrational (bov)bov(bov)bov


[top]Sentence Structure

We use ergative case in simple past tense. That means, the subject of the sentence takes the accusative form while the direct object takes the nominative form. The verb still agrees with the subject.

cadtem maz cäd.
(cadem) (maz) (cäd).
sing-1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
.PASPast
action occurred before moment of speech
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
song-SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
.ABSAbsolutive (case)
TRANS object, INTR argument

I sang a song.
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