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Dialects of Qgam Dzwo
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This public article was written by [Deactivated User], and last updated on 5 Jun 2021, 07:22.

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Menu 1. Onset Consonants 2. Rhymes 3. Rhymes

Spoken Qgam Dzwo is divided into a number of mutually-intelligible dialects. These dialects vary primarily in phonology and vocabulary, especially the usage of auxiliary verbs.

These dialects can be roughtly divided into three groups: Northern (or Western) Qgam, Eastern Qgam, and Southern Qgam, with variation occurring within each general grouping.

The Northern variety represents the standard dialect. Dialects of the Northwest are notable for making a distinction between palatalized and non-palatalized vowels. This is areal feature that has been incorporated into other surrounding dialects, notably in the Ham Year dialect, but it is absent in the southeast. Grammatically, they are notworthy for their use of the present indicative auxiliary do, absent in other dialects.

Phonologically, the Eastern dialects are noteworthy for their absence of coda /m/, the merger of /ʎ/ into /j/, and the loss of the glottal stop /ʔ/. Additionally, coda /ɻ/ is realized as a tap or trill, and is realized in coda position only as creaky voice on nucleus vowel. Many diphthongs are also simplified. Grammatically, they are noteworthy for their use of the present indicative auxiliary way, which does not occur in other dialects.

As mentioned above, the southern dialects are identifiable by their complete lack of a palatalization distinction in vowels (more specifically, the fronting of certain vowels following palatal consonants), and the nasalization of vowels before coda nasals. The use of the auxiliary bwoy/boy for future is typical, while the auxiliary šruo/šro, found in other dialects, is absent. The auxiliary jer "must" is also absent, replaced by cam, which means "should" in other dialects.


[edit] [top]Onset Consonants

There is some variation in onset consonants, though many consonants are identical across all dialects. The following table outlines the various realizations of all onset consonants:
RomanizationNorthern QgamEastern QgamSouthern Qgam
Ļmeaĝ
(Northwestern)
Hwam Deaĝ Ruom
(Standard)
War Moy
(Northeastern)
Me La KheaCaa Ļer
(Sĝki Ldzaa)
Ham YearDas Roy
(Swom Cor)
Ĝli (Northern Twam Kheaw)Dem (Southern Twam Kheaw)
p
p
b
b
m
m
t
t
d
d
n
n
s
s
dz
d͡z
z
l
l
r
ɻ
r
ɾ
ɻ
c
t͡ɕ
j
d͡ʑ
š
ɕ
ɕ
ç
ç
ļ
ʎ
j
ʎ
ʑ
y
j
j
k
k
k
kh
k͡x
k͡χ
k͡x
g
ɡ
ĝ
ŋ
h
x
χ
x
h
q
ʔ
Ø
ʔ


[edit] [top]Rhymes

Rhymes are made up of a vowel nucleus and an optional final consonant. In many cases, the final consonants affect the specific pronunciation of the nucleus vowels, and in many dialects, especially in the north, certain onset consonants also alter vowel pronunciation. Additionally, rhymes exhibit considerable variation among dialects. The following chart outlines all possible rhymes in the various dialects:

Work in progress! Blank squares have yet to be decided.
RhymeNorthern QgamEastern QgamSouthern Qgam
ĻmeaĝStandard Qgam/Hwam Deaĝ RuomWar MoyMe La KheaCaa ĻerHam YearDas RoyĜliDem
Onset ⇒plainpalatalplainpalatalplainpalatalplainpalatalstandardplainpalatalstandardstandardstandard
Nucleus + CodaeØ
ɛ
ɛ
ɛ
ɛ
ɛ
ɛ
e
e
e
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
a
ə
ʌ
ə
ʌ
ə
a
ä
ə
ə
ə
ə
o
ʊ
ɵ
ɔ
ɜ
ɔ
ɞ
ɔ
ɞ
ɔ
o
ɵ
u
o
o
ea
ɛə̯
eə̯
ɛə̯
ɛː
ɛː
ɛː
ɛə̯
iə̯
iə̯
aa
äː
æː
ɑː
æː
ɑː
æː
ɑː
æː
äː
ɐː
ɐː
ɐː
uo
ʊə̯
ɵə̯
wɔə̯, ʊə̯
ɨə̯
wɔː, ʊ̯ɔ
wɞː, ɨɞ
ɔː
ɞː
ɔː
ɵː
oʊ̯
ey
ɛi̯
ej
ɛː
i
ɪi̯
ij
a
əj
ʌj
əj
ʌj
əj
ʌj
əj
äj
əj
əj
ə
ə
o
ʊj
ɵj
ɔj
ɜj
ɔj
ɞj
ɔj
ɞj
ɔj
oj
ɵj
uj
oj
oj
ea
ɛːj
eːj
æːj
ɛː
ɛː
ɛːj
ɛə̯j
iə̯j
i̯eː
aa
äːj
æːj
ɑːj
æːj
ɑːj
æːj
ɑːj
æːj
äːj
ɐːj
ɐːj
aːj
ɐːj
uo
ʊə̯j
ɵə̯j
wɔə̯j, ʊə̯j
ɨə̯j
wɔːj, ʊ̯ɔj
wɞːj, ɨɞj
ɔːj
ɞːj
ɔːj
oːj
ɵːj
uːj
oːj
u̯eː
ew
əː
əː
əː
eə̯
i
ɨː
ɨː
ɨː
iːə̯
a
əw
ʌw
əw
ʌw
əw
əː
o
ɨː
ɨː
ɔː
ɞː
ea
ɛə̯w
ɛːw
eə̯w
eːə̯
aa
äːw
æːw
ɑːw
æːw
ɑːw
æːw
ɐːw
uo
ɔːw
ɜːw
uːə
ɨːə̯
ʉː
oːʊ̯
er
ɛɻ
ɛɻ
ɛɻ
ɛ̰
ɛ̰
i
a
əɻ
ʌɻ
əɻ
ʌɻ
əɻ
ä̰
əɻ
o
ɔɻ
ɜɻ
ɔɻ
ɜɻ
ɔɻ
ɞɻ
ɔ̰
ɞ̰
ɔ̰
ea
ɛə̯ɻ
eə̯ɻ
ɛə̯ɻ
ɛ̰ː
ɛ̰ː
iə̯ɻ
aa
äːɻ
æːɻ
ɑːw
æːw
ɑːw
æːw
ɐːw
uo
ɔːw
ɜːw
uːə
ɨːə̯
ʉː
oːʊ̯
em, ĝ
ɛN
ɛN
ɛN
ɛŋ
ɛŋ
ẽN
i
iN
iN
iN
ĩN
a
əɻ
ʌN
əN
ʌN
əN
äŋ
ə̃m
o
ɔN
ɜN
ɔN
ɜN
ɔN
ɞN
ɔŋ
ɞŋ
ɔŋ
õN
ea
ɛə̯N
eə̯N
ɛə̯N
ɛːŋ
ɛːŋ
ĩə̯N
aa
äːN
æːN
ɑːN
æːN
ɑːN
æːN
ɑːŋ
æːŋ
äːŋ
ɐːN
uo
ʊə̯N
ɵə̯N
wɔə̯N, ʊə̯N
ɨə̯N
ɔːN, ʊ̯ɔN
wɞːN, ɨɞN
ɔːŋ
ɞːŋ
oʊ̯N


[edit] [top]Rhymes

WIP. For now, check here for basically the same information.
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