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Postpositional clitics
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How postpositions are used in Standard Retenian?
This public article was written by [Deactivated User], and last updated on 25 May 2023, 20:29.

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This article is a work in progress! Check back later in case any changes have occurred.
Menu 1. Ba, genitive (sort of) 2. Di, locative 3. Do, dative 4. Ku, possessive 5. E, accusative 6. Ri, ablative 7. Ja, instrumental case marker 8. Yo, nominative case marker 9. Demonstrative determiners
[edit] [top]Ba, genitive (sort of)

To say "about"

(Kayo) taba tay.
It's about you.

Lewru so historya ba tay.
That book is about History.

Kato tado fanao ba lewru e tay.
This is the book I'm telling you about.

[edit] [top]Di, locative

To say "in", "on", "at"or "to"(only with eya "to go" auxiliary)

(Mayo) maku osu di yeo = I'm in my house
(Sayo) Iskola di hay = He go to school
(Sayo) Iskola di setasa = He's at school

Formation of adverbs:
Di postposition is used to form adverbs of temporal or spatial location and also abstract situations, in opposition with adverbs of manner that use -zi affix.


Momentodi = currently
(Momen = moment, To = this)

Formation of ordinal numbers
In modern Standard Retenian, ordinal numbers are formed by adding the locative postposition at the cardinal number:

Indi / Inni (In+di) = first
di (Zû+di) = second
Shaydi (Shay+di) = third
Tshôdi (tshô+di) = fourth
Bandi / Banni (Ban+di) = fifth
Soydi (Soy+di) = sixth

to express progressivity
Di is added to the verb stem and followed by hassa "to be" auxiliary.

(Mayo) hayadi yeo = I'm eating

[edit] [top]Do, dative

To say "to" (something) or "for"

(Kayo) tado tay = It's for you
(Mayo) kae sado zao. = I give it to you
(Mayo) Restoran di hayá do heo = I go to the restaurant to eat

To express expectation
Do is affixed to the verb stem and followed by "hassa" auxiliary at present tense.

(Sayo) ajay ampado sâ.
He/She should arrive today..

(Sayo) miraw syado sâ.
He/She should leave tomorrow.

Maku râtsha yo hatan hayado sâ.
My brother should eat here.

If something was expected and not happened, "hassa" is conjugated at past tense:

(Sayo) tsanatu hewma to di ampado futsi.
He/She was supposed to arrive last week

Maku râtsha atan hayado futsi.
My brother was supposed to eat here

Ps: hayá do is pronounced the same as hayado, it's the context of the phrase and especially the following auxiliary that determine if it's "for eating" or "should eat"

To express a wish
Do is added after the verb conjugated at subjunctive mood.

Saku rayja jamuka do.
May your kingdom come

to express obligation (colloquial speech)
Do is postpositioned to the verb at infinitive and followed by the verb "to have".
The construction is a little bit similar with "have to" in English or "tener que" in Spanish.

Hóradi syá do kao.
I have to leave now.

Ps: In formal speech, the auxiliary nenká is used instead:

Hóradi syá nenkao = I have to leave now

[edit] [top]Ku, possessive

Maku sâ = It's mine
Maku lewru tay = It's my book

Maku râtsha ku karu yo shetsaki tay.
My brother's car is broken

Kamisha to koku tay?
Whose shirt is this?

Kato koku tay?
Whose is this?

[edit] [top]E, accusative

Saku mata yo naranja e hayase.
His/her mother eats oranges.

[edit] [top]Ri, ablative

To say "from" or "since"

Zaman to shay mantshu ri asan tatorase.
This person lives there since three months

(Sayo) Ispanya ri sâ.
He/She is from Spain.

to form passive phrases

Musu so katu so ri hayatu sâ.
The mouse is eaten by the cat

Temera to mari oratu tay.
This mound is made by me.

to form a proximal past tense
-ri is added after the verb at infinitive and followed by conjugated "hassa" auxiliary

(Mayo) hayari yeo.
I just eaten (literally: I'm from eat)

[edit] [top]Ja, instrumental case marker

(Mayo) maku zenji ja zerao.
I watch with my eyes

(Tayo) noy ja errayte.
You travelled by boat

[edit] [top]Yo, nominative case marker

When there the subject don't has a demonstrative determiner (to, so, kyo), it's marked by yo

Yusebe yo Maria e īwáse.
Yusebe ("Joseph") loves Maria.

Without "yo" marker, we have:

Yusebe Maria e īwáse.
He/she loves Yusebe-Maria (because Standard Retenian is pro-drop)

Katu mû e hayase.
He/she eats a cat-mouse (maybe an hybrid animal? or new species?)

Katu yo mû e hayase.
Cat (species) eats mouse (species)

Contrast with:

Katu so mû so e hayase.
(a specific) cat eats (a specific) mouse

[edit] [top]Demonstrative determiners

Modern Standard Retenian has 3 demonstrative determiners that don't agree with plural:
to = proximal "this / these"
so = medial "that / those"
kyo = distal "that / those"

Osta to maku sâ. = this house is mine.
Óstay to maku tsukay. = these houses are mine.

In some cases, so is used like the in English, even if definite article doesn't exist in Standard Retenian.

It's important to note that they are different from demonstrative pronouns.

formation of demonstrative pronouns
They are 12 demonstratives pronouns that are formed adding the demonstrative determiner to/so/kyo after the 3rd person personal pronouns ka/kê/sa/sun.

Proximal demonstrative pronouns:
kato (inanimate singular)
kêto (inanimate plural)
sato (animate singular)
sunto (animate plural)

Medial demonstrative pronouns:
kaso (inanimate singular)
kêso (inanimate plural)
saso (animate singular)
suntso (animate plural)

Distal demonstrative pronouns:
kakyo (inanimate singular)
kêkyo (inanimate plural)
sakyo (animate singular)
sunkyo (animate plural)

Anye tsî? naranja e hayadi saso tsî?
Where is it? Is it the one who eats an orange?

kato maku kamisha sâ.
This is my shirt.

sato maku kay tsî.
This is my dog
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