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This public article was written by [Deactivated User], and last updated on 1 Jun 2023, 08:56.

[Public] ? ?
4. numbers ? ?
6. Retenia ? ?
9. Syntax ? ?
11. Verbs ? ?
This article is a work in progress! Check back later in case any changes have occurred.
Menu 1. Tenses an moods 2. Irregular verbs conjugations 3. verb to adjective 4. verb to noun

[edit] [top]Tenses an moods

In standard Retenian, verbs at infinitive have the -a stem that correspond to the indicative mood.

The -u stem is the mark of the irrealis mood that is used in subjunctive and conditional constructions but also in rapported/ non witness situations (with suffix -ko).
Nowadays, -ko affix is only used when something is rapported and that we are not sure about this thing

These "-a" and "-u" are old auxiliaries that fused with the verb stem and became a part of it, they always bear a high pitch stress, this is why they are written with an accent when they occure in final position.

-y is the mark of the past tense
-a is the mark of the future tense, it's placed after the stem of the irrealis mode to form the irrealis future.
Irrealis future is used for a future action that can't be situated in the time. When a future action can be situated in the time, the indicative present tense is used and is preceded by a temporal adverb (ex: tomorrow, next year... )

The verbs agrees with the subject and the number and with animacy at 3rd person using affixes: -o, -te, -se, -ka, -nne, -je, -sun, -key

Example with zerá (to watch)
ERROR: zerenzuyme > zerenzuyo
Imperative: zerue
Imperative (causative): zerenzue


Katu yo mû e hayayse
the cat eated the mouse (I seen it or I not seen it but I'm sure about it)

Katu yo mû e hayukkoyse
the cat eated the mouse I don't seen it and I'm not sure about it

(Tayo) khoy e hayúate!
You will eat the dust! (we don't know when)

(Sayo) khoy e tado hayenzúase!
He/she will make you eat the dust! (we don't know when)

[edit] [top]Irregular verbs conjugations

Hassá (to be) is irregular due to its suppletive forms and the conservation of archaic patterns of conjugation that don't contain the common -á/-ú conjugation system (except for the causative forms given by the verb kirá)

Imperative: shé
Imperative (causative): kirue

Boyá (to become) follow the common -á/-ú conjugation system so it's almost regular except for the fact that the causative form is the verb kirá (to cause to be, cause to become).

Imperative: boyue
Imperative (causative): kirue

[edit] [top]verb to adjective

From a verb, it's possible to create 8 adjective in Retenian

Let's begin with the indicative -a stem, we can add:
-a-tu if the object take the action of the verb

-a-wa to denote a behaviour
(If the verb ends in -wá, we have -wa-ha)

And with the irrealis -u stem, and adding -tu or -wa (that turns into -ha in this case) we have:
-u-tu to denote a possibility that the object take the action of the verb

-u-ha to denote an ability

Now we introduce the -n- negative infix, -tu become -du and -wa become -ka:

-a-n-du = the object didn't take the action of the verb
-a-n-ka = "non-behaviour"
-u-n-du = impossibility to take the action of the verb
-u-n-ka = unability

handejatu = expected, anticipated
handejandu = unexpected, unforeseen
handejutu = anticipatable
handejundu = unforeseeable
handejawa = foreseeing, farsighted
handejanka = reckless
handejuha = able to anticipate
handejunka = unable to anticipe

These adjectives can be nominalised adding the suffix -tesha ("-ness", "-ity) with the exception that after -tu it's contracted to -ttesha so, we have handejattesha and handejuttesha but if it's -ndu than it as expected become -ndutesha

[edit] [top]verb to noun

Action/state noun:

To create an action or state noun from a verb, the affix -era is added:
handejera = anticipation

Agent noun:

Patient noun:

To create a patient noun, the -a-tu adjectival ending is used and is completed by the pronoun -sá if the patient is animate or -ká if the patient is inanimate:

handejatusá = someone that is expected
handejatuká = something that is expected

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