cws
Greetings Guest
home > library > journal > view_article
« Back to Articles » Journal
Edconéig Ancavedur ed Taaevaod Partiíel iae Podar
0▲ 0 ▼ 0
Extinct Participles from Old and Middle Edievian
This public article was written by argyle, and last updated on 27 Nov 2018, 02:03.

[comments] Menu 1. The Participles of Old Edievian
?FYI...
This article is a work in progress! Check back later in case any changes have occurred.

Old Edievian (OE), and to a lesser extent, Middle Edievian (ME), had a productive and widely-used system of verbal participles than does Edievian. Only the present perfect and past perfect participles survived into Edievian, which are now used as the general nominalizing suffix for verbs, usually for use with an auxiliary verb or as an actual nominal, and as a past passive participle, respectively. Laendish went further and lost all of the participles (with the exception of some fossilized derivatives), and therefore will not be mentioned further in this article.

[top]The Participles of Old Edievian

OE maintained a three-way tense distinction and two-way aspect distinction in its participles, mirroring the way in which finite verbs had also developed an aspectual distinction while evolving from Colian. The three tenses (past, present, and future) and two aspects (perfect and imperfect) were all productive via suffixes added on the verb stem.

PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
FUTFuture (tense)
action occurring after the moment of speech
PERFPerfect (aspect/tense)
have verb-ed
-or-iad-ov
IPFImperfect tense/aspect (tense/aspect)
Past tense + Imperfect aspect
-ors-iats-ofs

The final s on the imperfect suffixes are vestiges of the adverb-turned-verbal particle sji, originally meaning "still". This same particle generated the imperfect forms of finite verbs, as well.

These participles were often used in place of what Edievian now uses relative clauses for:

Sjên mêc rosofs.
sjê
DEFDefinite
"the"
mêc
dog
ros
drink
-ofs
FUTFuture (tense)
action occurring after the moment of speech
.IMFUnknown code.PARTUnknown code

The dog that will be drinking.

Mam gê cjêndar aslor.
mam-Ø
have-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I

1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
cjêndar
table
asl
fall
-or
PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
.PERFPerfect (aspect/tense)
have verb-ed
.PARTUnknown code

I have a table that fell.

These participles were also able to take objects like finite verbs, though there was some inconsistency on how those objects were treated. Most writings of OE allow for direct objects to simply follow the participle, with indirect objects or benefactives following behind:

Scôlasi sjên banas sjômor cem asju.
scôl
see
-asi
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
.PROGProgressive (aspect)
be verb-ing
sjê
DEFDefinite
"the"
banas
rabbit
sjôm
eat
-or
PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
.PERFPerfect (aspect/tense)
have verb-ed
.PARTUnknown code
cem
all
asju
turnip=PLPlural (number)
more than one/few

I see the rabbit that ate all of the turnips.

Do i abêsi sjên cam glamanov le vê-sj etag o-sj dôc.
do i
LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
ab
COPCopula
used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate
-êsi
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
.PROGProgressive (aspect)
be verb-ing
sjê
DEFDefinite
"the"
cam
man
glaman
marry
-ov
FUTFuture (tense)
action occurring after the moment of speech
.PERFPerfect (aspect/tense)
have verb-ed
.PARTUnknown code
le
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving
vê-sj
for-DEFDefinite
"the"
etag
land
o-sj
GENGenitive (case)
possessive
.INALInalienable (possesson)
thing that can't be gained or lost
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
-DEFDefinite
"the"
dôc
father

There's the man who will marry her for her father's land.

Other inscriptions had direct objects preceded by the genitive particles o(n) or u(n):

An gê scôlja sjên olc sjômor o-sj avet o-g.
an
NEGNegative (polarity)
not

1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
scôl-ja
see-NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
sjên
DEFDefinite
"the"
olc
wolf
sjôm-or
eat-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
.PERFPerfect (aspect/tense)
have verb-ed
.PARTUnknown code
o-sj
GENGenitive (case)
possessive
.INALInalienable (possesson)
thing that can't be gained or lost
-DEFDefinite
"the"
avet
lamb
o-g
GENGenitive (case)
possessive
.INALInalienable (possesson)
thing that can't be gained or lost
-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I

I don't see the wolf that ate my lamb.
Comments (0)
privacy | FAQs | rules | statistics | graphs | donate | api (indev)
Viewing CWS in: English | Time now is 20-May-19 21:06 | Δt: 212.708ms