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Indefinites and interrogatives
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This public article was written by xroooox, and last updated on 14 Dec 2019, 21:41.

[comments] Menu 1. Indefinites 2. Polar interrogatives 3. Wh interrogatives 4. Indefinite prefixes
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[top]Indefinites

There is a series of indefinite pronouns that marks case and animacity:



absergaccobl
all anim ṇláṇlágṇlàṇlá
all inan ṇlúṇlúgṇlùṇlúg
some anim lág
some inan mlúmlúgmlùmlúg
any anim kláklágklàklá
any inan ŋlúŋlúgŋlùŋlúg
neg anim slóslógslòsló
neg inan mlúumlúugmlùumlúug


These indefinites are used as relational nouns. When they're by their own they must have the third person -z suffix.

·Lágaz mùkmara álip ŋi ·upamu
Someone gave the book to the woman.

·Áđtup ·mlùz álip ŋi ·upamu
The man gave something to the woman.

·Áđtup mùkmara láz ŋi ·upamu
The man gave the book to someone.

They can also be used with a noun or pronoun. In that case they get the usual suffix (third person in this case is zero). The exception comes when another relational is used, and the last one receives the person inflection.

·Áđtup ·lág mùkmara álip ŋi ·upamu
Some man gave the book to the woman.

·Áđtup múkmara mlù álip ŋi ·upamu
The man gave some book to the woman.

·Áđtup mùkmara ·álip láz ŋi ·upamu
The man gave the book to some woman.

Bá láglik mùkmara álip ŋi ·úmpu
Some of us gave the book to the woman.

·Áđtup mùkmara lá ŋilik ·upamu
The man gave the book to some of us.

*Mánne Sàbgid mlo ŋil palŋe lamù.

*Sábgid mlù Mánne ŋil palmèsmu.

Mánne Sábgid mlù ŋil palmèsmu.
Mane brought some oranges for me.

Mane brought oranges for some of us.
Ŋilkil mlo Mánne sàbgii palŋe lamù.

[top]Polar interrogatives

There is an interrogative mode that changes according to verb class. The last verb of the verb phrase is the one that receives this mode.

·Áđtup mùkmara álip ·upámu.
the man gave a book to the woman.

·Áđtup mùkmara álip ·upùmŋamu?
Did the man give the book to the woman?

·Áđtup mùkmara álip ·upùm ómu.
the man didn't give a book to the woman

·Áđtup mùkmara álip ·upùm úuz ŋamú?
didn't the man give the book to the woman?

[top]Wh interrogatives

These are formed in two ways. Subject, object and some other phrases use indefinite pronouns and the verb is marked as interrogative.

Lág mùkmara álip ·upùŋŋamu?
who

·Áđtup là álip ·upùŋŋamu?
what

·Áđtup mùkmara lá ŋi ·upùŋŋamu?
to whom

For other interrogatives (when, how, where) a special indefinite verb is used.

·Áđtup mùkmara álip ·upùm seŋèlmu?
when

·Áđtup mùkmara álip ·upùm ŋlomú?
where?

·Áđtup mùkmara mlo álip ·upùm ŋelmù?
how many?

·Áđtup mùkmara álip ·upùm ŋelmù?
how?

·Áđtup mùkmara álip ·upùm ŋampù?
Why?

[top]Indefinite prefixes

The last verbs have a series of prefixes that show two distance distinctions, and indefinites.




timeplacemannerreasonquantity
interrogativeseŋel·ŋloŋelŋapmlo ŋel
proxsemŋel·baŋlobaŋelbaŋapmlo baŋel
distsesŋel·seŋlosŋelsŋapmlo sŋel
indef (some)sela·luulapamlo la
indef (any)skel·klokelkapmli kel
universal (all)ṇuskel·ṇukloṇukelṇukapmli ṇukel
negativeskol·kolokolkopmli kol


·Áḍtup mùkmaṇa álip ·ŋi ·upùm bampù.
·á-ḍut-p
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-man.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
-DEFDefinite
"the"
mù-kumaṇ-a
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-book.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
á-li-p
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-woman.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
-DEFDefinite
"the"
·-ŋi 3-DAT ·up-´m
give-NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
ba-p-m-ù
DISTDistal (proximity)
far from speaker (and addressee)
-how-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action

The man gave the woman a book that way/like that.

·Áḍtup mùkmaṇa álip ·ŋi ·upùm spumù.
·á-ḍut-p
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-man.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
-DEFDefinite
"the"
mù-kumar-a
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-book.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
á-li-p
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-woman.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
-DEFDefinite
"the"
·-ŋi 3-DAT ·up-´m
give-NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
s-p-m-ù
PROXProximal (proximity)
close to speaker
-how-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action

The man gave the woman a book this way.

·Áđtup mùkmara álip ·upùm pamù.
·á-ḍut-p
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-man.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
-DEFDefinite
"the"
mù-kumar-a
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-book.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
á-li-p
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-woman.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
-DEFDefinite
"the"
·-ŋi 3-DAT ·up-´m
give-NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
pa-m-ù
INDFIndefinite
a nonspecific referent
.how-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action

The man gave the woman a book somehow.

·Áđtup mùkmara álip ·upùm blomù.
·á-ḍut-p
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-man.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
-DEFDefinite
"the"
mù-kumar-a
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-book.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
á-li-p
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-woman.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
-DEFDefinite
"the"
·-ŋi 3-DAT ·up-´m
give-NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
b-lo-m-ù
DISTDistal (proximity)
far from speaker (and addressee)
-where-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action

The man gave the woman a book there

·Áđtup mùkmaraa álip ·upùm babìig slomù.
·á-ḍut-p
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-man.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
-DEFDefinite
"the"
mù-kumar-a
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-book.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
á-li-p
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-woman.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
-DEFDefinite
"the"
·-ŋi 3-DAT ·up-´m
give-NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
bìig
be-NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
s-lo-t-a
PROXProximal (proximity)
close to speaker
-where-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
-IPFVImperfective (aspect)
'interrupted or incomplete'

The man uses to give the woman books here.

·Áđtup mùkmara álip ·upùm slomù.
·á-ḍut-p
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-man.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
-DEFDefinite
"the"
mù-kumar-a
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-book.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
á-li-p
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-woman.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
-DEFDefinite
"the"
·-ŋi 3-DAT ·up-´m
give-NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
s-lo-m-ù
PROXProximal (proximity)
close to speaker
-where-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action

The man gave the woman a book there

·Áđtup mùkmara álip ·upùm seŋèlmu?
·á-ḍut-p
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-man.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
-DEFDefinite
"the"
mù-kumar-a
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-book.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
á-li-p
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-woman.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
-DEFDefinite
"the"
·-ŋi 3-DAT ·up-´m
give-NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
se-ŋèl-m-ù
QInterrogative
question
-when-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action

when did the man give the woman a book?

·Áđtup mùkmara álip ·upùm plomù.
·á-ḍut-p
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-man.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
-DEFDefinite
"the"
mù-kumar-a
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-book.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
á-li-p
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-woman.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
-DEFDefinite
"the"
·-ŋi 3-DAT ·up-´m
give-NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
p-lo-m-ù
INDFIndefinite
a nonspecific referent
-where-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action

The man gave the woman a book somewhere

·Áđtup mùkmara álip ·upùm sebàŋelmu.

The man gave the woman a book now

·Áđtup mùkmara álip ·upùm sesŋèlmu
·á-ḍut-p
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-man.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
-DEFDefinite
"the"
mù-kumar-a
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-book.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
á-li-p
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-woman.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
-DEFDefinite
"the"
·-ŋi 3-DAT ·up-´m
give-NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
p-lo-m-ù
INDFIndefinite
a nonspecific referent
-where-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action

then

·Áđtup mùkmara álip ·upùm seŋèlmu?
·á-ḍut-p
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-man.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
-DEFDefinite
"the"
mù-kumar-a
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-book.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
á-li-p
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-woman.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
-DEFDefinite
"the"
·-ŋi 3-DAT ·up-´m
give-NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
se-ŋèl-m-u
INTERRInterrogative mood (mood)
asks questions
-where-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action

sometime

·Áŋasli sàbgii ·kaammuu
Ŋasli bought oranges

·Áŋasli sàbgii mlo ·kaàbaŋ lamù.
Ŋasli bought some oranges

·Áŋasli sàbgii mlo ·kaàbaŋ ŋelmù.
How many oranges did Ŋasli buy?

Sàbgii mlo Mánne ŋil palŋè klàg omu.
s-àpigi-:
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-orange-INDFIndefinite
a nonspecific referent
.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient

mlo
INDF
Mánne
Manne.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
ŋi-l
DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
-1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
pal-ŋè
carry-VENVenitive (case)
coming 'towards'
.NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
kel-àg
NEGNegative (polarity)
not
.INDFIndefinite
a nonspecific referent
-NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
o-m-ù
NEGNegative (polarity)
not
-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action

Manne didn't bring any oranges for me.

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