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Classes according to possesive marking
This public article was written by xroooox, and last updated on 31 May 2019, 02:54.
4. Deinau nouns
9. Deinau verb
10. Deinau writing
14. Kinship terms
16. Noun predicates
17. Relative clausesDeinau has mostly iroquois kinship. Kinship terms in Deinau have different ways to be posessed. Most nouns need a classifier that shows age according to ego, źle for older relatives and źe for younger, but some may receive directly person and number suffixes. In some cases this changes the meaning of the noun.
Most feminine kinship terms have very similar roots of masculine terms, but with front harmony and high vowels.
The person-number suffixes used are the same of other classifiers and conjugated postpositions, excepting that the first person is -∅ in nouns. The third person -z is also replaced by -∅ when used with classifiers, nouns erasing the last vowel of the first person form and lengthening the preceding vowel.
There are two roots for mother and father, ama/nan and aba/dat. The first of each pair is only used as a vocative and is only first person. They can only be used with direct parents (vs parent's same sex siblings). This words, when they appear with classifiers, change their meaning. With ẓle they refer to grandparents and with ẓe to parents-in-law.
The words for children (kima/·kimi) are usually used without a classifier, but it may be added to distinguish the oldest child from the youngest.The ones for the siblings, punu/·puni, are always used with classifiers.
Another pair that changes meaning with classifiers is mlebi/·mimi, uncle/aunt. With ẓe they refer to cousins and with ẓle to great-uncle/aunt.
Kinship terms may receive a human classifier, depending on dialectal and sociolectal variation.When it appears it is a-. Using the classifier with absolutive and oblique cases is considered vulgar by many speakers. If a honorific prefix is used the classifier is obligatory, though.
Here are the singular forms of the three persons for the nouns mentioned above:
|Older brother||pun ẓlel||pun ẓles||pun ẓle|
|younger brother||pun ẓel||pun ẓes||pun ẓe|
|older sister||·pun ẓlel||·pun ẓles||·pun ẓle|
|Younger sister||·pun ẓel||·pun ẓes||·pun ẓe|
|grandfather||dat ẓlel||dat ẓles||dat ẓle|
|grandmother||nan ẓlel||nan ẓles||nan ẓle|
|Father-in-law||dat ẓel||dat ẓes||dat ẓe|
|Mother-in-law||nan ẓel||nan ẓes||nan ẓe|
|Great-uncle||mleb ẓlel||mleb ẓles||mleb ẓle|
|Great-aunt||·mim ẓlel||·mim ẓles||·mim ẓle|
|male cousin||mleb ẓel||mleb ẓes||mleb ẓe|
|female cousin||·mim ẓel||·mim ẓes||·mim ẓe|