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Derivation
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Making new stems in Deinau
This public article was written by xroooox, and last updated on 23 Jul 2019, 23:32.

[comments] Menu 1. Nominal derivation 2. Denominal verbs 3. Verb compounding 4. Nominalization 5. Verbal derivatives 6. Light verb constructions
[top]Nominal derivation

ut: individual
·ldamut: weed ·ldam grass
ize: collective (human-related inalienable collection, as a farm or a plantation)
·-ab: collective (collection of identical items)

[top]Denominal verbs

Nouns can be made into verbs with special suffixes that often are independent verbs in English. There are two kind of suffixes: predicative and proper derivatives. Predicative suffixes are all productive. Derivatives not always are productive, and their meanings might have shifted from their original use. Some of them have an independent verb form, but most of the time it's not related in form and has a different grammatical meaning. There is a tendency of having a nasal consonant. The newer suffixes can trigger vowel harmony. and may trigger front harmony in vowels.

Predicatives

-u: be X (animate predicative) (P)
This is the general predicative form. This suffix is sometimes elided due to other phonological processes.

·Ṣik ṣte ·naàsta
·ṣi-k
3ABSUnknown code-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
s-ṭe
PROXProximal (proximity)
close to speaker
-DEMDemonstrative
e.g. this/ that
·naàs-u-ta
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.baby-PREDPredicative
expressions typically following a copula
-IMPFVUnknown code

These are babies

-du: be X (for inanimates) (P)
This is the general predicative form. This suffix is sometimes elided due to other phonological processes.

·Ṣik ṣtuuŋ ·nduldùta
·ṣi-k
3ABSUnknown code-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
s-ṭuuŋ
PROXProximal (proximity)
close to speaker
-DEMDemonstrative
e.g. this/ that
·ndul-du-ta
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.mango-PREDPredicative
expressions typically following a copula
.INANInanimate (gender/class)
inanimate, sessile
-IMPFVUnknown code

These are mangoes.

-·ni: there's X /Existential predicative(P AN)

Mlubuuḍḍlap ·babùŋintimas.
ba-buŋit-·ni-ma-s
DISTDistal (proximity)
far from speaker (and addressee)
-3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.girl-pair-EXISTExistential (case)
'there is'
.ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving
-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
.IPFVImperfective (aspect)
'interrupted or incomplete'
-DUDual (number)
two


There were two girls in the park (together).

-li: there's X /Existential predicative(P, INAN)

·Sundùllita
s-·ndul-li-ta
PROXProximal (proximity)
close to speaker
-3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.mango-EXISTExistential (case)
'there is'
.INANInanimate (gender/class)
inanimate, sessile
-IMPFVUnknown code

Here are some/the mangoes.

-das: be from X (P)
·Èspeŋnas óta, Màsladasta.
·Èspeŋ-das
Spain-be.from.NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
ó-ta
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
-NEGNegative (polarity)
not
-IPFVImperfective (aspect)
'interrupted or incomplete'

MMasculine gender (gender)
masculine or male
àsl-das-ta.
1.Egypt-be.from-IPFV

Derivatives

-(e)ŋ: wear X (P), put on X (A), dress Y with X (C)

·Anaas tàmaldikig oṇnìgaŋta.
v-·naas
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-baby.DEFDefinite
"the"
.ABSAbsolutive (case)
TRANS object, INTR argument
tv́-maldik-ig
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-headband-INDEFIndefinite
a nonspecific referent
.OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
oṇnìga-ŋ-ta
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.hat-wear.PUnknown code-IMPFVUnknown code

The baby wears a headband.

·Umaṇ tàmaldikig oṇnigaŋta.
·umaṇ
young.DEFDefinite
"the"
.ABSAbsolutive (case)
TRANS object, INTR argument
tV́-maldik-ig
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-headband-INDEFIndefinite
a nonspecific referent
.OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
oṇníga-ŋ-ta
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.hat-wear.AModifier
adjective, adverb, etc
-IMPFVUnknown code

The child puts on a head band.

PtcXcrifXraoXgkidiXlmtFXpshnFaZprmhafj
·Úmaṇap ·anàasap tàmaldikig oṇniŋŋata.
·úmar-p
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-child.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
-DEFDefinite
"the"
·anàas-p
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-baby.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
-DEFDefinite
"the"
tV́-maldik-g
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-headband-INDEFIndefinite
a nonspecific referent
.OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
oṇníga-ŋ-a-ta
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.hat-dress-TRTransitive (valency)
has two arguments
-IMPFVUnknown code

The child dressed the baby with the headband.

-amṇu: take off X (A), undress Y of X (C)


-(e)m: have X (inalienable posession) (A), have Y as a X (T), to be X (M)
When used with kinship terms that inflect without a classifier the suffix is added to the inflected form. For animals the form is -n(e)m

Pál kímam óta.
Pál
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.ABSAbsolutive (case)
TRANS object, INTR argument
kíma-m
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.son.1POSSUnknown code-have.IRRIrrealis
mood
óta
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.NEGNegative (polarity)
not
-IMPFVUnknown code

I don't have any sons.

Tà dàatemŋata?

2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
.ABSAbsolutive (case)
TRANS object, INTR argument
dàat-em-ŋa-ta
2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
.father-have.IRRIrrealis
mood
-INTERRInterrogative mood (mood)
asks questions
-IMPFVUnknown code

Are you a father?

Akòski ·kìmsemiŋ bál ḍélgolma.
Akòski
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-Akoski.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
·kímis-em-iŋ
2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
-daughter.2POSSUnknown code-have-NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
bál
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
ḍélgol-a-ma
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.heart-keep-TRTransitive (valency)
has two arguments
-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
.IMPFVUnknown code

I thought Akoski is your daughter.

Pál ·aṣontemim óta.
Pál
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.ABSAbsolutive (case)
TRANS object, INTR argument
·aṣot-nemim
dog-have.IRRIrrealis
mood
óta
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.NEGNegative (polarity)
not
-IMPFVUnknown code

I don't have any dogs.

-(i)r: make X (T)

Bás ṭibil máldinkimŋamuu?
Bá-s
ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
-2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
ṭ-bil
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-yellow.RELRelative
máldik-ir-im-ŋa-mu-u
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.headband-make-IRRIrrealis
mood
-INTERRInterrogative mood (mood)
asks questions
-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
.PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few


Did you make the yellow headbands?

-nu: use X (T), lack X (P)

Bál sùluu ·mlìtiŋ ḍáŋminuumna.
Bál
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
s-sùlu-ː
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-fish.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
-INDEFIndefinite
a nonspecific referent
.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
·m<l>ìt-ŋ
<LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
>cut.ILLIllative (case)
'into'
-NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
ḍáŋmi-nu-a-mu-na
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.knife-use-TRTransitive (valency)
has two arguments
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
.PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-PAUCUnknown code

I used the knife to cut a few fish (I cut the fish with a knife)
*Note the verb in a purpose clause is nominalised and in illative case.

Pál bàlnu, bùbuṇdlap ·kàabaŋ ṣnàpem óta.
I'm poor, I can't buy a car.

-gas: eat X (A), be a X-eater (P)

Pál zàag ṭuuŋ ·kìnemŋasta.
pál
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.ABSAbsolutive (case)
TRANS object, INTR argument
zàag
OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
/red.RELRelative
ṭuuŋ
DEMDemonstrative
e.g. this/ that
·kínem-gas-ta
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
/berry-eat-IPFVImperfective (aspect)
'interrupted or incomplete'
-NPSTNon-past (tense)
present, continuous and future

I eat the/a red berry.

-is: become X (P) *Note verb is- 'to go'

Akamṇa ·kaàdbiismu.
Akamṇa
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-old.RELRelative
·kaàdbe-is-mu
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.monkey-become-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
.PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech

The old one became a monkey.

-pus: to become un-X (P) *Note verb pus- 'to return'

Akamṇa ·kaàdbepusmu.
Akamra
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-old.RELRelative
·kaàdbe-pus-mu
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.monkey-TRANSTransitive (valency)
has two arguments
.NEGNegative (polarity)
not
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
.PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech

The old one reversed from being a monkey.

-mun: pick, gather, hunt X (A, T)

Bálik ·káadbemnag bémaa.
Bál-ik
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
·káadbe-mun-ag
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.monkey-hunt-NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
.INTRIntransitive (valency)
has one argument
béma-a
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.be-IMPFVUnknown code-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few

We use to hunt monkeys.

Bálik skuùŋmaa ·kàadbemnuŋ bémaa.
Bál-ik
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
s-kuùŋma-ː
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-howler.monkey.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
-INDEFIndefinite
a nonspecific referent
.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
·káadbe-mun-ŋ
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.monkey-hunt-NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
.TRTransitive (valency)
has two arguments
bémaa
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.be-IMPFVUnknown code-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few

We use to hunt howler monkeys.

-dan: be full of X (P)

·Leŋid ·kaàdbedanta.
l-·eŋid
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-tree.DEFDefinite
"the"
·kaàdbe-bd-ta
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.monkey-full-IMPFVUnknown code

The jungle is full of monkeys.

·-(i)bd: be covered with X (P), cover with X (T)
·Mìgep ·smlàmibdiŋ ·plidinŋaaguspaa ·ne ŋlasmamap mo ·ŋlebdaas.
m-·ìge-p
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-fabric.OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
-DEFDefinite
"the"
·sm<l>àm-ibd-ŋ
<LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
>dye.ALLAllative (case)
'to, onto'
-cover-NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
·p-l-dinŋaagus-paa
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
-hour-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
.DEFDefinite
"the"
·ne
four
ŋ-l-smam-p
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
-dye-DEFDefinite
"the"
mo
in
·ŋlé-bd-a-ː-s
2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
.water-cover-TRTransitive (valency)
has two arguments
-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
-IMPImperative (mood)
command


To dye the fabric, soak it in the dye for four hours.

-up: give X, to do X (working) (T), be a X-giver, X-er (P)
This suffix is often used for occupations and nouns relating to people.

-p: do X (Var), pretend to be X (P)

-t: be X-ish, X-like (P)

·-lit: be a pair (P) make a pair of X (T)
This is different from the common dual form since it treats every pair as a unit. It's also restricted mostly to natural pairs. The form with the final /t/ is used in non-conjugated forms. Frecuently used with kinship terms.

·Dúglusblitaas!
du-glub-zu-·lit-a-u-s
foot-cover-OBL.NMZ-pair-PL-IMP

Pair the socks!

·Nánlimtataa.
na<´>na-·lit-em-a-ta-s
(1)mother-pair-have.as-TR-IPFV-DU

They are my parents.

-lun: carry in X (Mov)
The verbs formed with this suffix take direction suffixes as a movement verb. The object still is in accusative case.
·ṣlosŋiinlunuŋ

·-ẓog: hit with X (T)
Compounds with this suffix often have specialized meanings.

·uduẓog to kick

[top]Verb compounding


Noun-Verb compounds
The most common noun roots that are prefixed to a verb root are body parts.

Verb-Verb compounds
In the most common form of compounding the second verb adds a resultative meaning.

[top]Nominalization

Nominalized verbs have different sufixes and tone according to their class. When they are in an auxiliary construction they don't have class prefixes, which are needed when they appear in a noun phrase.
Subject-agent nominalization
This one is used with all verb classes. If the verb is transitive it shows the agent. There are two forms: realis and irrealis. This used the same sufixes as the auxiliary verb nominalization.
·aśadaŋ: cook
·aśadam: the one that is going to cook, future/would be cook

Object nominalization
Transitive verbs have another pair of object nominalizations, formed with a suffix -Ce which copies the last consonant of the root and then the nominalizing suffixes.. Vowel final roots add -le.
·śadde: cooked
·śaddem: irr cooked

Action nominalization
This is formed with the special class prefix u- and the main set of sufixes. this prefix acts as a class prefix. There is no irrealis form.
·uśadaŋ: cooking

Locative nominalization
It is used for locations where the verb takes place. It is formed adding the locative infix <l> to the class prefix, which replaces the unespecified vowel with the action nominalization prefix u. Thus, this nouns are prefixed with Clu-, where C stands for the class marker. This prefix often describes the place and helps to disambiguate.
Blugaasaŋ: dining room
Blulugaasaŋ: Place of man-eating (a mountain near ·Mogu)


Oblique nominalization
This form is used for deverbal nouns that show other roles. It is formed with the suffix -zu and the nominalizer. Irrealis is not used. Class prefixes often disambiguate between different nominalized forms:
From gaas-, to eat
Magaassuŋ: table (flat)
Pagaassuŋ: bowl (round)
Tagaassuŋ: spoon, fork, etc. (vertical long)

[top]Verbal derivatives

Some of these suffixes come from former free verb roots, but now are fixed as derivative suffixes. Other ones exist as a main verb root.

·-p: be X-able (M)
Mùdokpaa anbas, ·ẓoppìntaa.
Be careful with those, they're flammable.

-gurt: be un-X-able (M)
Dunluklanaŋ ·paggùrut mélga ken glubinta.
The windows are covered wth unbreakable glass.

-peb: be un-X (P)
mulpeb: empty

-ŧlo: stop X (Var)

Minàpaa magmag ·paṭlos, ·ìt giílga.
Stop playing with those, they'll scratch you.

·-okp: be hard to X (M)


·-okp: be almost X (P, T)
·ṇapke ·zadokputa
Foods almost done

·ṇapkep ·zadokpata
i almost finish cooking

-mok: be too X (P) do X a lot (A, T)

[top]Light verb constructions

These are composed of a noun and a verb that has little meaning by itself, but gives its inflection to the clause. The most common verb use is p, to do. This verb has a form, pa-, which is used in intransitive sentences. This form has fused the transitive suffix -a into the root.

Páḍdla pág ·ŋlòta?
Where do you live?

Páḍdla pà ·ŋlòta?
Where will you live?

Is ·màṇin paaspi.
Let me help you.
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